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Translator’s Double loyalty! • Translation always involves a SL (text) and a TL (text) and a process whereby words or sentences (or in fact texts) from the SL are substituted or changed by equivalent items in the TL to be congruent with the phonological, morphological, semantic, syntactic and stylistic rules of the TL while at the same time preserving the original meanings.
Double loyalty of translation Faithfulness to the SLT preserving meaning (and structures) TLT not violating structures
Translation’s Double loyalty • This double loyalty of translation (to SL and TL) will be determined by the purpose for which the translation is meant and its context.
Translation Paradox There seems to be a contradiction in the process of translation: • On the one hand, there are Limitations of, and differences, between languages making translation difficult if not impossible. • And yet, we have always exercised translation, which is necessary for scientific, economic and social and cultural reasons. • The case of the translation of religious texts is a good example.
The Translator’s DilemmaDecisions The translator is frequently in a dilemma, which can be expressed as follows: • translating closely to the meanings and structures of source text is one thing, • delivering a good translation is another. This is the faithful vs. beautiful translation, content vs. form duality.
Dualities like these are useful for teaching purposes but they do not help much in evaluating particular translations, even less in producing correct translations. • Most of the time a good translation is both faithful and beautiful • (see the Translator’s Freedom Reality or Illusion paper).