Wear proper PPE Secure hair and loose clothing. Work in areas with good lighting. Make sure all personnel are at a safe distance before using the tool. Deep tools free of oil, grease, and foreign matter Use the tool for its designed use. Secure small work in a clamp or vise. Repair or replace damaged tools. Report any injuries to the supervisor. Tool Safety
Categories of Tools • Hand • Power • Test
Hand Tools Tools that are powered by hand • Hand tool safety • Keep sharp and in proper working order • Point cutting tools away from the body during use. • Grind excess metal from mushroomed chisels. • Organize tools to protect and conceal sharp cutting surfaces. • Never use a hammer on another hammer. • Do not carry tools a a pocket. • Remove fasteners by pulling the tool toward the body or pushing the tool away from the face. • Wooden handles shall be keep free of splitters and cracks. • Measuring tools • Micrometer • Rules • Thicknessgauges • Fastening tools • Wrenches • Screwdrivers • Pliers • Cutting tools • Hacksaws • Files • Chisels • Driving tools • Hammers • Mallets • Punches
Power Tools Tools that are electrically, pneumatically, hydraulically or engine powered. If capable of being held in the operators hands they are called portable power tools. Large power tools that are not hand held are call stationary power tools. • Small engine power tools • Grinders • Drill press • Air chisels • Impact wrenches • Battery chargers • Portable drills • Power tool safety • All tools should be operated according to the manufactures instructions. • Insure electrically powered tools are properly grounded. • Metal case electrical portable power tools should have a three prong cord. • Do not use electrical tools on damp ground.. • Floors must be kept clean, dry and free of debris. • Stand to one side when starting grinders. • Keep all guards in place.
A test tool is a measurement tool used to test the condition or operation of an engine component or system. Test tools Multimeter Spark tester Compression tester Cylinder leakdown tester Test Tools • Test tool safety • Use tool according to manufactures instructions. • Store properly
Tools • Tools for engine maintenance and repair can be divided into three (3) categories: • Special engine • General purpose • Measuring
Tools – Special Purpose Engine Tools • Valve spring compressor • Spark tester • Spark plug gauge • Tang bending tool • Tachometer • Feeler gages • Torque wrench • Starter clutch wrench • Oil evacuator pump • Flywheel puller • Flywheel strap wrench • Multimeter • Piston ring compressor • Valve lapping tool • Plug gauge • Seal protector • Impact wrench
Tools – SE – Valve Spring Compressor Used to compress the valve spring in L-head engines so the key hole type of valve spring retainer can be removed. Key hole valve spring retainer Lever style works well with B & S engines.
Tools – SE – Spark Tester Spark testers are used to determine if the ignition system is producing sufficient energy to fire the spark plug. The spark plug wire is attached to the terminal on the tester and the clamp is attached to a good ground on the engine.
Tools – Small Engine - Spark Plug Gauge Used to set the gap between the two electrodes on spark plugs. Wire types are also used.
Tools – Small Engine – Tang Tool Used to adjust the governor spring tang. The tang is bent to fine tune the engine speed.
Tools – Small Engine - Tachometer • Tachometers are used to measure engine speed. • Briggs & Stratton recommends the Tiny Tach. • The wire is attached to the spark plug lead. • When engine is running it gives rpm, when engine is off it reads hours of use. • Virbatachs are also useful when managing small engines.
Tools – Small Engine – Feeler Gage • Use to measure or set small clearances. • Each blade is a different thickness. • Most have both English and metric measurements on the blades.
Tools – Small Engine – Torque Wrench • Used to tighten bolts and nuts to a specific torque. • Torque = lb-ft • Older style uses a flexible beam. • Newer style clicks when the desired torque is applied.
Tools – Small Engine – Starter clutch Wrench • Used to take off the starter clutch. • The starter clutch holds on the flywheel.
Tools – Small Engine – Flywheel puller • Small engine flywheels are mounted on a tapered section of the crankshaft. • A flywheel puller is used to remove the flywheel from the crankshaft.
Tools – Small Engine – Flywheel Strap Wrench • Strap wrenches are used to keep the flywheel from turning when removing the flywheel nut or clutch. • They have replaced the older style of flywheel holder.
Tools – Small Engine – Multimeter • Required to troubleshoot electrical problems. • Measures amps, volts and Ohms.
Tools – Small Engine – Piston Ring compressor • Used to compress the rings on the piston when installing the piston into the cylinder.
Tools – Small Engine – Valve Lapping Tool • The valves seal the combustion chamber. • To have a good seal the contact line on the valve face must be uniform width and darkness. • If the contact line on a valve taken out of an engine is not uniform in width and darkness, it should be lapped. New Valve Lapped Valve
Tools – Small Engine – Plug Gauge • Used to determine if wear is acceptable for valve guides. • May also be used for main bearings. • Must have the correct number of gauge for the engine model.
Tools – Small Engine – Seal Protectors • Should be used when assembling the sump plate/crankcase cover to the block. • Protects the crankshaft seal from damage.
Tools – Small Engine – Impact Wrench • Used to apply high amounts of torque to a nut or bolt with minimum effort. • Power has traditionally been compressed air, but electric impact wrenches are also available. Note: An impact wrench is not the same tool as an impact drill.
Tools – General Purpose Engine Tools • General purpose tools for small engines can be divided into three (3) categories. • Turning • Gripping • Driving
Tools – GPE Tools - Turning • Wrenches • Screwdrivers • Ratchet & Socket
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools - Wrenches • Open end wrench • Standard wrench has a different size on each end. • Available in English and metric sizes. • Many variations. Wrenches for specific implements Single Open End
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools - Wrenches • Box end wrench • Preferred over open end wrench because less chance of stripping of the corners of the nut or bolt head. • Available in fractional and metric sizes.
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools - Wrenches • Combination wrench • Combination of open end wrench and box end wrench. • Usually both ends are the same size. • Available in fractional and metric sizes.
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools - Wrenches • Ratchet box end wrench • Newer style that is gaining popularity because the reduce the amount of time required to remove a nut or bolt. • Available in fractional and metric sizes.
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools - Wrenches • Adjustable wrench • Available in different sizes. • Size determined by handle length.
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools - Wrenches • Hex wrench • Has a hexagonal cross section to match bolts and screws with a hexagonal socket in the head. • Also available with a screw driver handle, folding and several other configurations.
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools – Screw Drivers • Screwdrivers are designed to turn/hold wood and metal screws. • Screw drivers are available in many different lengths, style of handles and drive points.
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools – Screw Drivers • The drive points are designed to match the different types of screw heads. • Six (6) drive points are: Each type of screw driver is available in different sizes.
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools – Screw Drivers • Slotted screwdrivers are sized by blade width. • Phillips screwdrivers are sized by number.
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools – Bit Driver • Screws can also be installed and removed using a bit driver and interchangeable bits. Bit driver Bits for different screw patterns
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools – Ratchet & Socket • Ratchet wrench • Used to turn sockets. • Different size of drives are used. • 1/4, 3/8,& 1/2 inch are most common.
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools - Ratchet & Socket • Ratchet sockets • Many variations in sockets are available. • They can be taller-deep sockets. • They can have different number of points, usually ranging from 4 to 12. • They can have swivels attached. • Available in fractional and metric sizes. Deep Sockets 4 point 12 point Swivel sockets
Tools – GPE Tools – Turning Tools - Ratchet & Socket • Ratchet extensions • Extensions are used to extend the distance between the ratchet and the socket. • Available for the different drive sizes. • Multiple lengths
GPT- Gripping - Pliers • Pliers are used for holding or turning. • Many different types and sizes are available. • Common types used for small engines include: • Slip joint • Diagonal (side cutters) • Needle nose • Tongue and groove • Locking
GPT- Gripping – Pliers – Slip Joint • Slip joint pliers get their name from the have the capability of slipping the hinge joint to increase the size of object that can be gripped. • Slip joint pliers are sized by their length. • Most brands also have a wire cutter.
GPT- Gripping – Pliers – Diagonal Cutters • Used for cutting wire.
GPT- Gripping – Pliers – Needle Nose • Needle nose pliers have long narrow jaws that allow them to reach into small or crowded areas. • Needle nose pliers are sized by their length. • Many variations are available. Long nose Bent nose
GPT- Gripping – Pliers – Tongue & Groove • These pliers have serrated jaws that are angled to the handles. • The lower jaw can be moved into different grooves, which changes the effective gripping size, without increasing the distance between the handles. • Size is determined by the length of the handles.
GPT- Gripping – Pliers – Locking • Locking pliers use a thumb wheel to adjust to range of sizes and an over center lever action to lock the handles in place. • Locking pliers are sized by their length. • They are available with a variety of jaws.
Introduction Measuring tools for small engines are divided into three categories. • Direct reading • Measurement transferring • Reject gages