Unit 2-Part 1: Confucianism and Daoism/Taoism • Both of these religions came from China. • However, they were not supposed to be religions. They were initially philosophies, but turned into religions. Confucius, the founder of Confucianism
First, let’s talk about Confucianism • The founder of this religion was Confucius. • Part of Chou Dynasty • Known for counseling a small band of students during his lifetime • His sayings were written down in the Analects/ Lun Yu-one of a 4 book collection called the Si Shu. This is the title page of a copy of the Analects.
His Followers • With the exception of his students and group of political leaders that followed him, Confucius had little success during his lifetime • However, there are now approx. 6 million Confucians in the world-primarily in China and other parts of Asia.
Core Beliefs • Confucian ethical teachings include the following values: Li: includes ritual, propriety, etiquette, etc. Hsiao: love within the family: love of parents for their children and of children for their parents Yi: righteousness Xin: honesty and trustworthiness Jen: benevolence, humaneness towards others; the highest Confucian virtue Chung: loyalty to the state, etc.
Practices • Confucianism does not contain all of the elements of some other religions, like Christianity and Islam. • It is primarily an ethical system to which rituals at important times during one's lifetime have been added. • Since the time of the Han dynasty (206 CE) four life passages have been recognized and regulated by Confucian tradition: birth; reaching maturity; marriage, and death
The Five Relationships of Confucius • People were supposed to stay in their place in society. This created harmony. • The five relationships are: • Father/son • Brother/brother • Husband/wife • Ruler/subject • Friend/friend
Filial Piety • The most important item for a person that is Confucian is filial piety-respect for parents. • If you respect your parents, everything else will fall into place. Gate of Filial Piety
Spread of Confucianism • The ironic thing about Confucianism is that it didn’t begin spreading until after his death. • Because of this, Confucius didn’t experience wealth and fame during his life.
Taoism/Daoism • The founder of Taoism is Laozi. • Taoists believe in harmony with nature instead of harmony with people. • Taoism is the opposite of Confucianism Laozi
The Tao • The tao is known as the way. • The goal of a Taoist is to become one with the tao. • They also believe in yin and yang, or the balance of forces in the universe.
Other Facts about Taoism • They are polytheistic and believe in spirits and gods of nature. • They believe that if you are kind to people, they will be kind to you. Taoists focus on harmony with nature
Taoism Today • Taoism currently has about 20 million followers, and is primarily centered in Taiwan. • About 30,000 Taoists live in North America; 1,720 in Canada (1991 census). • Taoism has had a significant impact on North American culture in areas of "acupuncture, herbalism, holistic medicine, meditation and martial arts..."
A Few Taoism Quotes • "Be still like a mountain and flow like a great river." Lao Tse • "Different Chinese philosophers, writing probably in 5-4 centuries B.C., presented some major ideas and a way of life that are nowadays known under the name of Taoism, the way of correspondence between man and the tendency or the course of natural world." Alan Watts, from his book: "Tao: The Watercourse Way." • "We believe in the formless and eternal Tao, and we recognize all personified deities as being mere human constructs. We reject hatred, intolerance, and unnecessary violence, and embrace harmony, love and learning, as we are taught by Nature. We place our trust and our lives in the Tao, that we may live in peace and balance with the Universe, both in this mortal life and beyond." Creed of the Western Reform Taoist Congregation