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Chapter 9 Forensic Anthropology - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 9 Forensic Anthropology. Prof. J. T. Spencer Adjunct Prof. T. L. Meeks. Learning Goals and Objectives. Forensic anthropology can provide critical answers in an investigation involving human remains…. Learning Goals and Objectives. The structure and function of the bones

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slide1

Chapter 9

Forensic Anthropology

Prof. J. T. Spencer

Adjunct Prof. T. L. Meeks

slide2

Learning Goals and Objectives

Forensic anthropology can provide critical answers in an investigation involving human remains…

slide3

Learning Goals and Objectives

  • The structure and function of the bones
  • of the human body
  • How to determine if an object is bone or
  • not
  • How to determine if a bone is human
  • bone
  • How to determine how old a bone is
  • How to construct a biological profile from
  • skeletal remains
slide4

Learning Goals and Objectives

  • How to prepare a facial reconstruction
  • from a skull
  • How to gain insight into how someone
  • died by examining their bones
  • How to process a crime scene contain
  • bones
  • What is forensic taphonomy.
slide5

Anthropology

  • Defined as “the field of study that deals with the analysis of human skeletal remains resulting from unexplained deaths.”
  • Often done in a legal context
  • An applied science
  • Five subdisciplines:
    • 1. Biological, or physical anthropology
    • 2. Archaeology
    • 3. Cultural anthropology
    • 4. Linguistics
    • 5. Applied anthropology
slide6

Biological Profile

Includes:

1. General Description

2. Sex of decedent

3. Age of decedent

4. Ancestry of decedent

5. Stature of decedent

6. Assessment of trauma

(ante-, peri-, post mortem)

7. Pathologies noted

osteology
Osteology

Human bone –vs- Animal bone

Macroscopic differences

Radiology

Observation

Measurement

Microscopic differences

macroscopic differences
Macroscopic differences

Baboon femur

Human femur

osteology1
Osteology

Radiographs

information from skeletal remains sex of decedent1
Information from skeletal remains Sex of decedent

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html

information from skeletal remains sex of decedent2
Information from skeletal remainsSex of decedent

MALE OR FEMALE SKELETON?

(a) IS FEMALE and (b) IS MALE

information from skeletal remains sex of decedent3
Information from skeletal remains Sex of decedent

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html

what can we learn from skeletons age at death
What can we learn from skeletons? Age at Death

Hip bone most useful for adults

Estimate given as a range

(30 – 35 yrs old)

Teeth: Erupted or Not?

Epiphyses: fused or unfused?

Auricular surface

Pubic symphysis

slide19

Age at Death

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html

slide20

Age at Death

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html

osteology2
Osteology

Teeth also studied

Deciduous –vs- Permanent

slide22

Age at Death

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html

slide23

Epiphyses - A part of bone separated from the main body of the bone by a layer of cartilage and subsequently uniting with the bone through further ossification

Unfused = juvenile

Fused = adult

more info from skeletal remains
More info from skeletal remains

ANCESTRY of decedent

Difficult determination to make

Facial bones most important

Nasal aperture

Teeth

Interorbital space

Mandible

stature estimate
Stature estimate

Measure long bone(s) available

Plug in value to formula

Range established for stature of decedent

5’ 2” – 5’ 5”

other information trauma and pathologies
Other information TRAUMA and PATHOLOGIES

Ante- mortem

Post-mortem

Peri-mortem

Gunshot

individual identification
Individual Identification

Person identified when it was found that the amalgam used in her dental restorations was of a type found only in specific areas on the Eastern Coast of the United States.

Habitual activity can wear away the protective, cartilagenous lining which reduces friction in joints. The humerus in this photograph were in contact for many years prior to this individual's death. The surfaces are smooth and shiny, indicating that the joint capsule and cartilage had worn away, allowing bone on bone contact in the cavity.

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html

individual identification1
Individual Identification

Dental implants, braces, and other types of dental work are often recovered with a body and are extremely useful in identification because they are so unique to the individual and are well detailed in antemortem radiographs and medical records.

Healed fracture on the sternal end of a midthoracic rib. The area within the red brackets is the site of injury. Note the more porous appearance of the bone in this area - this is woven bone.

http://medlib.med.utah.edu/kw/osteo/forensics/sasta.html

forensic anthropology conclusions and summary
Forensic Anthropology Conclusions and Summary

1. General Description

2. Sex of decedent

3. Age of decedent

4. Ancestry of decedent

5. Stature of decedent

6. Assessment of trauma

(ante-, peri-, post mortem)

7. Pathologies noted

Exclusionary and identification evidence

Class and individual evidence

forensic anthropology
Forensic Anthropology

http://www.crimelibrary.com/criminal_mind/forensics/anthropology/1.html

http://www.forensicanthro.com/

http://www.mnsu.edu/emuseum/biology/forensics/index.shtml