Ece5320 mechatronics literature survey on sensors and actuators topic gyroscopes
Download
1 / 20

ECE5320 Mechatronics Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Gyroscopes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 153 Views
  • Uploaded on

ECE5320 Mechatronics Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Gyroscopes. Prepared by: Daniel Ricsi Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University E:[email protected] 2/26/2009. Outline . Reference list To explore further Major applications

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'ECE5320 Mechatronics Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Gyroscopes' - ella


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
Ece5320 mechatronics literature survey on sensors and actuators topic gyroscopes l.jpg

ECE5320 MechatronicsLiterature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Gyroscopes

Prepared by: Daniel Ricsi

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Utah State University

E:[email protected]

2/26/2009


Outline l.jpg
Outline

  • Reference list

  • To explore further

  • Major applications

  • Gyro principal

  • Gyroscopes

  • Types of gyros

  • Gyro performance

  • Gyro parameters

  • Specifications of CRS03-02

  • MicroStrain 3DM-GX1

  • Benchmarking: Fiber-optic gyro

  • Mayor applications

  • Final Remarks

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Reference list l.jpg
Reference list

  • http://web.mac.com/ryo_watanabe/iWeb/Ryo%27s%20Holiday/Gyro%20Sensor.html

  • http://www.motusbioengineering.com/sensor-comparisons-technical-note.htm

  • http://metrology.hut.fi/courses/S-108.4010/2007/Spring_2007_MEMS_JKa.pdf

  • http://automation.tkk.fi/attach/AS-84-3145/Gyros.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


To explore further l.jpg
To Explore Further

  • http://www.microstrain.com/3dmgx1.aspx

  • http://www.microstrain.com/inertia-link.aspx

  • http://www.xbow.com/Inertial_home.aspx

  • http://www.vti.fi/en/

  • http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4245717

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyro principal l.jpg
Gyro principal

  • Gyro is a type of inertial sensor

  • Based on conservation of momentum.

  • Gyro measures rotation

  • Measure angular velocity

    • Radians/sec

  • Integrating the velocity is possible obtain the angular position

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Gyroscope_operation.gif

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyroscopes l.jpg
Gyroscopes

  • Non-sensitive to magnetic disturbances. It can be used in environment where the magnetic field is not available

    • Mechanical gyroscopes

      • Based on conservation of momentum

      • Measure the changes in linear- or angular momentum

    • Optical gyroscopes

      • No moving parts (gravitation doesn’t affect)

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Mechanical gyroscopes l.jpg
Mechanical Gyroscopes

  • Based on conservation of momentum

    • Continuous angular movement

      • Mm. flywheel gyroscope

    • Oscillatory angular momentum

      • Employ a torsionally suspended mass oscillating back and forth at its natural frequency

    • Continuous linear momentum

      • Steady stream of fluid, plasma or electrons, which tend to maintain its established velocity

    • Oscillatory linear momentum

      • a set of discrete masses moving back and forth along a straight-line path

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Mechanical flywheel gyroscope l.jpg
Mechanical Flywheel Gyroscope

  • A rapidly spinning wheel or sphere with big inertia causes a gyroscopic precision, when turned

  • Rotor is rotated with electrical motor

  • Rotor on supported by low-friction bearings and in a gimbal

  • Both axis of the gimbal are perpendicular to the rotating axis

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Optical gyroscopes l.jpg
Optical Gyroscopes

  • Most promising sensors in the mobile robotics in near future.

  • Two laser beams are rotating opposite directions in a closed loop

  • When the beams are combined the rotation rate and direction can be calculated from the interference fringes

  • Five basic principles:

    • Active optical resonator

    • Passive optical resonator

    • Open loop fibre optic interferometer (anal.)

    • Closed loop fibre optic interferometer (digit.)

    • Fibre optic resonator

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Active ring laser gyro l.jpg
Active Ring-laser Gyro

  • Active optical resonator

  • Resonator is a laser itself

  • (active)

  • If gyro is rotated counter clock wise direction, the counter-clock wise beam is travelling slightly longer than the opposite beam

  • The change in the path length is proportional to the rotation rate

  • In very small rotation rates

  • there is a dead-band because of frequency lock-in

http://automation.tkk.fi/attach/AS-84-3145/Gyros.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyroscopes11 l.jpg
Gyroscopes

  • There are two basic classes of rotation sensing gyros:

    • Rate gyros

      • The output is relative to the angular speed

    • Rate integrating gyros

      • Indicate the actual turn angle or heading

      • The angle is relative (must have a initially referenced to a known orientation.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Types of gyroscopes l.jpg
Types of Gyroscopes

  • Based on coriolis force

  • Vibrating wheel

    • Two axis, excitation around axis of symmetry

  • Vibrating bar gyro

  • Tuning fork gyro

  • Analog Devices

    • Signal conditioning

http://metrology.hut.fi/courses/S-108.4010/2007/Spring_2007_MEMS_JKa.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyro performance l.jpg
Gyro Performance

  • Classification according to bias drift

  • Rate grade 10 – 10000 deg/h

  • Tactical grade 0,01 – 10 deg/h

  • Navigation grade <0,01 deg/h

  • Mechanical, optical (fog, laser ring), MEMS (tuning fork, vibrating ring)

  • Dynamic area: few Hz – 500Hz

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Gyro parameters l.jpg
Gyro Parameters

  • These parameters are not easy to calibrate

  • Drift (see previous slide) [deg/h]

  • Max angular speed [deg/s]

  • Dynamic resolution [Hz]

http://blogs.smh.com.au/radar/robot.jpg

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Crs03 02 l.jpg
CRS03-02

  • This is a small gyro

  • Output : Analog DC voltage centered at about 2.5VDC

  • Rate Range : +/-100 deg/sec

  • Scale Factor : 20mV/(deg/sec)

  • Bias (neutral) : 50% of Vdd

  • Number of Axis : 1

  • Bandwidth(-3dB, -90deg) : 10 Hz

  • Dimensions : 29 x 18 x 29 mm

  • Power supply (Vdd) : 5VDC +/-250mV

  • Current dissipation :  less than 50mA(150mA for initialization

http://www.davidson.com.au/products/

inertialsystems/image/crs03.jpg

CRS03-02

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Microstrain 3dm gx1 l.jpg
MicroStrain 3DM-GX1

  • Three angular rate gyros

  • Three orthogonal DC accelerometers

  • Three orthogonal magnetometers

  • Multiplexer, 16 bit A/D converter, and embedded microcontroller

  • Output its orientation in dynamic and static environments

  • Update rates of 350 Hz

  • http://www.microstrain.com/3dmgx1.aspx

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Benchmarking fiber optic gyro l.jpg
Benchmarking: Fiber-optic gyro

  • Optical phase tracking

  • Extremely high performance

    • Drift < 0.010/hr

http://metrology.hut.fi/courses/S-108.4010/2007/Spring_2007_MEMS_JKa.pdf

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Major applications l.jpg
Major Applications

  • Automotive Yaw Rate Sensor  

  • Global Positioning System (GPS) Dead-reckoning  

  • Fluxgate Compass compensation  

  • In-Car Navigation Systems  

  • Mobile dish antenna stabilized platform  

  • Mobile camera platform stabilization  

  • Robotics  

  • Simulators  

  • Telematics / Fleet-management  

http://co2calculator.files.wordpress.com/2008/10/segway.jpg

http://www.blogcdn.com/www.engadget.com/

media/2008/06/amp_robot_white_back.jpg

http://www.geology.smu.edu/~dpa-www/robo/nbot/nbot2/nb12.jpg

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Cont applications l.jpg
Cont. Applications

  • Remote Control Vehicles  

  • Dynamic measurement units  

  • Drive safety recorder (blackbox for car/marine)  

  • AGV, wheelchair  

  • Marine Satellite Compasses  

  • Angle Wrench  

  • Agricultural Tractors  

  • Physiotherapy / therapeutic Equipment  

  • 3-D input devices  

http://www.fas.org/man/dod-101/sys/ac/v-22-pic01461.jpg

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_0x-_F8jtyJQ/ReDTlwO_2oI/AAAAAAAAALA/ZpVgYtZF8Vk/s320/carver.jpg

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


Final remarks l.jpg
Final Remarks

  • All mechanical Gyros (mems also) can be affected by external noise like vibrations and magnetic field

  • The best bandwidth up to 400Hz is available with optical gyros (ring laser) with mechanical ones typically < 10-20Hz

  • MEMS and FOGs are the most used in robotics.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators


ad