ece5320 mechatronics assignment 01 literature survey on sensors and actuators topic neural sensors n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Neural sensors PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Neural sensors

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 27

ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Neural sensors - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 179 Views
  • Uploaded on

ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Neural sensors. Prepared by: Philip Jones Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering Utah State University T: ( 435)797-4658; F: (435)797-3054 (ECE Dept.). 3/11/2005. Outline . Introduction

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'ECE5320 Mechatronics Assignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Neural sensors' - yaholo


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
ece5320 mechatronics assignment 01 literature survey on sensors and actuators topic neural sensors

ECE5320 MechatronicsAssignment#01: Literature Survey on Sensors and Actuators Topic: Neural sensors

Prepared by:

Philip Jones

Dept. of Electrical and Computer Engineering

Utah State University

T: (435)797-4658; F: (435)797-3054 (ECE Dept.)

3/11/2005

outline
Outline
  • Introduction
  • Reference list
  • To probe further
  • Major applications
  • Measurement Classifications
  • Interpretation Types
  • Sensors: Retailers and Cost

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

introduction
Introduction

Neural sensors are sensors designed to pick up the bio-electric signals that the brain and nervous system of all living creatures produce. There are a number of different ways to detect these signals and a number of techniques for interpreting what is detected. Most of the applications are still experimental but the potential for these sensors is limitless.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

reference list
Reference list

Prof Kevin Warwick - University of Reading

Jessica Bayliss, Ph.D. - Rochester Institute of Technology

Jonathan Wolpaw - Wadsworth Center

Toby Howard – University of Manchester

Hui-Fang Do – Utah State University

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

to explore further
To explore further

General

http://www.cs.man.ac.uk/aig/staff/toby/research/bci/

http://www.dataq.com/index.html

http://www.pemed.com/neuro/neuro.htm

http://www.cyber.rdg.ac.uk/

Cognitive Engineering

http://www.wheelweb.com/brainimplant.htm

http://maven.smith.edu/~orourke/Robotics/jaba/

http://www.cis.upenn.edu/~bracy/brain/

Silent Speech Recognition

http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/news/releases/2004/04_18AR.html

http://www.nasa.gov/centers/ames/news/releases/2004/subvocal/subvocal.html

http://www.newscientist.com/article.ns?id=dn4795

http://www.trnmag.com/Stories/2004/032404/System_susses_out_silent_speech_032404.html

Galvanic Skin Response

http://www.trans4mind.com/psychotechnics/gsr.html

http://www.qubitsystems.com/qubit/home/products/sensors/electrophysiology_sensors/galvanic_skin_response.php#

http://www.plazaearth.com/usr/gasperi/gsr.htm

http://www.bio-medical.com/news_display.cfm?mode=GSR&newsid=6

Electromyelogram

http://www.teleemg.com/

http://www.noraxon.com/index.php3

http://www.mndcentre.org.uk/Care%20Services/tests.html

Electroencephalogram

http://www.chw.org/display/PPF/DocID/2479/router.asp

http://www.ibva.com/html/core.htm

http://nwnfa.tripod.com/hometraining/id1.html

Electrocardiogram

http://www.ecglibrary.com/ecghome.html

http://www.hgcardio.com/HRhythm/NonInvasive/noninvasive.html

http://www.cincinnatichildrens.org/health/heart-encyclopedia/diagnostic/ekg.htm

Interesting Miscellaneous

http://www.wired.com/wired/archive/8.02/warwick_pr.html

EEG Interpretation Techniques

http://www.cs.rit.edu/~jdb/research/

http://www.wadsworth.org/resnres/wolpaw.htm

http://www.vh.org/adult/patient/neurology/visualevokedpotentialtest/

http://www.virginiamason.org/dbNeurophysiology/sec1824.htm

http://www.msu.edu/unit/neuro/subspecialties/vep.html

http://www.ophth.kpu-m.ac.jp/e/current_research/crt10.html

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

major applications
Major applications
  • Current Applications

Medical Diagnosis for neural, heart or psychological damage

Biofeedback therapy

Lie Detection

Recreation

  • Experimental Applications

Silent communication

Direct brain to computer control

Prosthesis control for paralysis victims

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

obstacle 1 signal detection
Obstacle 1: Signal Detection

There are two major obstacles to overcome in making useful measurements of the neural system. The first obstacle is detecting the signals. These signals are usually only a few millivolts in amplitude and must be measured through the non-homogenous medium of the human body.

A number of different techniques have been invented to make these measurements.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

typical setup
Typical Setup

Connector

Signal Input/

Signal Conditioning

Software

Processing/Interface

Human Interface

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

measurement classifications
Measurement Classifications
  • galvanic skin response (GSR)-This test measures the resistance of the skin to a small current passed though it. The resistance of the skin will change depending on the mood and emotional reaction of the subject
  • electroencephalogram (EEG) – The measurement of electrical activity in the brain usually through electrodes or a type of skullcap
  • electromyelogram (EMG) – The measurement of electrical activity in muscles. Usually measured through needles inserted into the muscles.
  • electrocardiogram (ECG/EKG) – The measurement of electrical activity in the heart
  • silent speech detection – A specialized type of EMG. Small sensors are placed on the throat to detect the neural impulses made by speaking or thinking about speaking.
  • cognitive engineering – An experimental advance on EEG, this techniques uses electrodes implanted directly in the brain to read brain electrical activity.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

gsr principles and applications
GSR: Principles and Applications

A sensor pad is placed on the subject, usually the finger and the conductivity of the skin is measured. The resistance of the skin will change according to the mental state of the subject. Shock, stress, surprise, and general mood will affect the resistance of the skin.

GSR has been used in tests on anxiety and stress, in biofeedback therapy, and sometimes as a lie detector. Some research is being done in using GSR sensors to help with athlete mental attitude training.

Interpretation of GSR data is not a firm science and there is a lot of debate over the interpretation and usefulness of the data. At this point in time this is probably the least useful of the neural sensors.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

gsr sensors
GSR: Sensors

A simple GSR sensor can be made with

Velcro, a DC battery, and a few electrical components. More advanced systems with greater accuracy and graphing capabilities can be purchased but are quite a bit more expensive

Retailer: Qubit Systems

Price: $570

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ecg ekg principles and applications
ECG/EKG: Principles and Applications

The electrocardiogram is one of the most common and best understood of the different classification of neural sensors.

Electrocardiograms are used to investigate heart disease. Very specific patterns have been determined for specific diseases. For specific details visit http://www.ecglibrary.com/ecghome.html

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

ecg ekg
ECG/EKG:

Retailer: DRE

Price: Contact Retailer

Retailer: MSEC Medical Supplies

& Equipment Company

Price: $2950-$3200(used)

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

eeg principles and applications
EEG: Principles and Applications

The most challenging and fascinating type of neural sensor is the electroencephalogram. This sensor is used to detect electrical activity in the brain or “brain waves.” Electrodes, bands, or a skullcap are placed on the head and used to pick up the signals.

Currently most practical uses of EEG are medical. The EEG can be used to detect the presence of brain damage or neurological disorders. EEG can also be used in biofeedback therapy.

Currently a lot of research is being done on using EEG to interface with computers and control objects or play video games. The possibilities for such applications is endless.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

basic electrode placement sites
Basic Electrode Placement Sites

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

emg principles and applications
EMG: Principles and Applications

An electromyelogram uses pads or needles to sense neural signals in the muscles.

EMG is used extensively to test for nerve damage either from injury or degenerative disease.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

eeg emg sensors
EEG/EMG: Sensors

Retailer: Dataq Instruments

Price: $25 - $300

Items: Data Acquisition Hardware

Software

Retailer: Noraxon

Price: Contact Retailer

Items: Data Acquisition Hardware

Software

Retailer: TeleEMG.com

Price: $3-$15

Items: Electrodes

Retailer: PMED

Price: $1,000 - $10,000

Items: Data Acquisition Hardware

Retailer: IBVA Technologies, Inc.

Price: (1 channel) $1,295 (2 channel) $2,295

Items: Interface(headband)

Data Acquisition Hardware

Software

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

obstacle 2 signal interpretation
Obstacle 2: Signal Interpretation
  • A larger problem than signal detection is extracting useful information from the signal detected. The human nervous system is a mass of signals of varying strength. Pinning down a specific signal for a specific thought or action can be extremely difficult. A number of techniques have been developed for interpreting the information.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

eeg interpretation
EEG Interpretation

It is one thing to be able to measure and record brain electrical activity but the real difficulty is making any sense out of the data. Several techniques are used to interpret and use the collected data Some of the most popular are:

  • P300 evoked potential
  • Mu Wave Manipulation/Biofeedback
  • VEP – Visual Evoked Potential
  • EEG Pattern Mapping

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

mu rhythm conditioning
Mu Rhythm Conditioning

Mu rhythm is a 8-12 Hz brain rhythm centered on the sensorimotor cortex. With biofeedback training the 80% of subjects are able to control the amplitude of the mu wave. The wave amplitude is used for external control, either moving a cursor or selecting different buttons.

Jonathan Wolpaw at the Wadsworth Center is doing research in using Mu conditioning to control a computer cursor. He is currently able to create one dimensional control and is working on creating two dimensional control.

The Cognitive Engineering research being done by Bakay and Kennedy is basically using the same approach. The only difference is that they are tapping directly into the brain.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

p300 evoked potential
P300 evoked potential

This is a brain signal that occurs about 300 ms after the subject has seen something he is looking for.

Jessica Bayliss of the University of Rochester is currently doing research in using P300 detection to control objects in a 3D world. She has done significant research in the detection of the signal even in an electrically noisy environment.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

visual evoked potential vep
Visual Evoked Potential (VEP)

This is a system that involves monitoring the visual pathways in the brain. Generally a set of images or colors is viewed and the corresponding brain patterns are recorded. When the images are viewed again the controlling software can recognize the recorded patterns and recognize when the pattern or color is seen again.

This technique is currently used to evaluate optic neuritis, optic tumors, retinal disorders and demyelineating diseases such as multiple sclerosis.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

eeg pattern mapping
EEG Pattern Mapping

The EEG patterns for specific activities such as saying a certain vowel, moving a specific limb, etc. are mapped out. This is the type of signal interpretation that most closely resembles “mind reading” it is also one of the more difficult to carry out successfully.

The nerve signal mapping done for silent speech detection is very similar to this type of signal processing.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

silent speech detection principle and application
Silent Speech Detection: Principle and Application

When a person reads or thinks to himself the nerve cells in the throat are stimulated even if the person doesn’t think out loud. NASA’s Ames Research Center is currently doing research on developing a system that will detect and interpret those signals. When fully developed this could result in completely silent voice activated systems. Basically you could “think” to your cell phone and the cell phone could pick up the signals just like your voice.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

silent speech detection current research
Silent Speech Detection: Current Research

Currently the system developed at Ames can recognize specific letters. A system is being developed to allow the system to recognize simple command words. Full speech recognition is still a long way off and may or may not be possible.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

cognitive engineering principles and application
Cognitive Engineering: Principles and Application

This type of sensor is still in the experimental phase and is being conducted by Dr. Roy Bakay and Dr. Philip Kennedy at Emory University.

The benefit of the system is that sensor is placed directly into the brain so there is no signal distortion by the skull and skin. Before surgery an MRI is used to determine the area of the brain used for muscle control and the implant is placed precisely in that spot.

Unfortunately the system is that is inherently dangerous, requiring very delicate brain surgery and that it requires advanced electrical and software interfaces.

Some groups worry about the social impact and potentially dangerous application of this technology. If the implant could be made to work both ways the possibility of mind control is feasible.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators

cognitive engineering device
Cognitive Engineering: Device

The implanted device is a neurotrophic electrode. This is a small glass case containing gold wires and small amount of nerve tissue from the leg. The nerve cells in the cone cause the surround nerve tissue to grow into the cell and form connections. When the brain’s neurons fire the signals are detected by the wires and transmitted to receivers and amplifiers placed outside of the scalp.

ECE5320 Mechatronics. Assignment#1 Survey on sensors and actuators