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Chapter 9 Acids and Bases. Acids and Bases. Acids and Bases – What they do in water. Acids produce H + in aqueous solutions water HCl H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) Bases produce OH - in aqueous solutions water NaOH Na + (aq) + OH - (aq). Acids.

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acids and bases what they do in water
Acids and Bases – What they do in water
  • Acids produce H+ in aqueous solutions

water

HCl H+(aq) + Cl- (aq)

  • Bases produce OH- in aqueous solutions

water

NaOH Na+(aq) + OH- (aq)

acids
Acids
  • Produce H+ (as H3O+) ions in water
  • Produce a negative ion (-) too
  • Taste sour
  • Corrode metals
  • React with bases to form salts and water
bases
Bases
  • Produce OH- ions in water
  • Taste bitter, chalky
  • Are electrolytes
  • Feel soapy, slippery
  • React with acids to form salts and water
learning check ab1
Learning Check AB1

Describe the solution in each of the following as: 1) acid 2) base or 3)neutral.

A. ___soda

B. ___soap

C. ___coffee

D. ___ wine

E. ___ water

F. ___ grapefruit

solution ab1
Solution AB1

Describe each solution as:

1) acid 2) base or 3) neutral.

A. _1_ soda

B. _2_ soap

C. _1_ coffee

D. _1_ wine

E. _3_ water

F. _1_ grapefruit

learning check ab2
Learning Check AB2

Identify each as characteristic of an A) acid or B) base

____ 1. Sour taste

____ 2. Produces OH- in aqueous solutions

____ 3. Chalky taste

____ 4. Is an electrolyte

____ 5. Produces H+ in aqueous solutions

solution ab2
Solution AB2

Identify each as a characteristic of an A) acid or B) base

_A_ 1. Sour taste

_B_ 2. Produces OH- in aqueous solutions

_B_ 3. Chalky taste

A, B4. Is an electrolyte

_A_ 5. Produces H+ in aqueous solutions

some common acids
Some Common Acids

HCl hydrochloric acid

HNO3 nitric acid

H3PO4 phosphoric acid

H2SO4 sulfuric acid

CH3COOH acetic acid

learning check ab3
Learning Check AB3

Give the names of the following

A. HBr (aq) 1. bromic acid

2. bromous acid

3. hydrobromic acid

B. H2CO3 1. carbonic acid

2. hydrocarbonic acid

3. carbonous acid

solution ab3
Solution AB3

A. HBr 3. hydrobromic acid

The name of a nonoxy acid begins with the prefix hydro- and ends with -ic acid. In a nonoxy acid, the negative anion end in -ide.

B.H2CO3 1. carbonic acid

The name of an oxyacid is named with the stem of the anion (carbonate) changed to

-ic acid

some common bases
Some Common Bases

NaOH sodium hydroxide

KOH potassium hydroxide

Ba(OH)2 ________________________

Mg(OH)2________________________ Al(OH)3 aluminum hydroxide

learning check ab4
Learning Check AB4

Match the formulas with the names:

A. ___ HNO21)hydrochloric acid

B. ___ Ca(OH)2 2) sulfuric acid

C. ___ H2SO4 3) sodium hydroxide

D. ___ HCl 4) nitrous acid

E. ___ NaOH 5) calcium hydroxide

solution ab4
Solution AB4

Match the formulas with the names:

A. _4__ HNO21)hydrochloric acid

B. _5__ Ca(OH)2 2) sulfuric acid

C. _2__ H2SO4 3) sodium hydroxide

D. _1__ HCl 4) nitrous acid

E. _3__ NaOH 5) calcium hydroxide

learning check ab5
Learning Check AB5

Acid, Base Name

or Salt

CaCl2 ______ _________________

KOH ______ _________________

Ba(OH)2 ______ _________________

HBr ______ _________________

H2SO4 ______ __________________

solution ab5
Solution AB5

Acid, Base Name

or Salt

CaCl2 salt calcium chloride

KOH base potassiuim hydroxide

Ba(OH)2 base barium hydroxide

HBr acid hydrobromic acid

H2SO4 acid sulfuric acid

acids bases what they do with h
Acids & Bases –What they do with H+

Acids are hydrogen ion (H+) donors

Bases are hydrogen ion (H+) acceptors

HCl + H2O H3O+ + Cl-

donor acceptor + -

+ +

neutralization reactions
Neutralization Reactions

When acid and bases with equal amounts of hydrogen ion H+ and hydroxide ions OH- are mixed, the resulting solution is neutral.

NaOH (aq) + HCl(aq) NaCl + H2O

base acid salt water

Ca(OH)2 + 2 HCl CaCl2 + 2H2O

base acid salt water

neutralization
Neutralization

H3O+ and OH- combine to produce water

H3O+ + OH- 2 H2O

from acid from base neutral

Net ionic equation:

H+ + OH- H2O

ionization of water
Ionization of Water

Occasionally, in water, a H+ is transferred between H2O molecules

. . . . . . . .

H:O: + :O:H H:O:H + + :O:H-

. . . . . . . .

HH H

water molecules hydronium hydroxide ion (+)ion (-)

pure water is neutral
Pure Water is Neutral

Pure water contains small, but equal amounts of ions: H3O+ and OH-

H2O + H2O H3O+ + OH-

hydronium hydroxide ion ion

1 x 10-7 M1 x 10-7 M

H3O+

OH-

ion product of water k w
Ion Product of Water Kw

[ ] = Molar concentration

Kw = [ H3O+ ] [ OH- ]

= [ 1 x 10-7 ][ 1 x 10-7 ]

= 1 x 10-14

acids23
Acids
  • Increase H+
  • HCl (g) + H2O (l)H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
  • More [H3O+] than water > 1 x 10-7M
  • As H3O+ increases, OH- decreases

[H3O+] > [OH-]

H3O+

OH-

bases24
Bases
  • Increase the hydroxide ions (OH-)

H2O

  • NaOH (s) Na+(aq) + OH- (aq)
  • More [OH-] than water, [OH-] > 1 x 10-7M
  • When OH- increases, H3O+ decreases

[OH] > [H3O+]

OH-

H3O+

slide25
pH
  • Indicates the acidity [H3O+] of the solution
  • pH = - log [H3O+]
  • From the French pouvoir hydrogene

(“hydrogen power” or power of

hydrogen)

slide26

Concentration changes by powers of 10

pH =1 has 10x more than pH = 2

pH = 1 has 100x more than pH = 3

More  Less

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14

slide27
pH

In the expression for [H3O+]

1 x 10-exponent

the exponent = pH

[H3O+] = 1 x 10-pH M

ph range
pH Range

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 12 13 14

Neutral

[H+]>[OH-][H+] = [OH-][OH-]>[H+]

Acidic

Basic

some h 3 o and ph
Some [H3O+] and pH

[H3O+] pH

1 x 10-5 M 5

1 x 10-9 M 9

1 x 10-11M 11

the ph scale
The pH Scale

1

1

2

2

3

3

4

4

5

5

6

6

7

8

9

9

10

10

11

11

12

12

13

14

Strong Acid

Weak

Acid

Neutral

Weak

Alkali

Strong Alkali

detecting acids and bases
Detecting Acids and Bases
  • You can detect an acid using an indicator.
  • INDICATOR- A substance that changes color in the presence of an acid or a base.
indicators
INDICATORS
  • Litmus paper is an indicator
  • An acid turns blue litmus paper red
  • A base turns red litmus paperblue
  • Cabbage juice can be used as an indicator
slide33

There are several ways to test pH

    • Blue litmus paper (red = acid)
    • Red litmus paper (blue = basic)
    • pH paper (multi-colored)
    • pH meter (7 is neutral, <7 acid, >7 base)
    • Universal indicator (multi-colored)
    • Indicators like phenolphthalein
    • Natural indicators like red cabbage, radishes