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Chapter 9 Acids and Bases. Ionization of Water The pH Scale. Ionization of Water. Occasionally, in water, a H + is transferred between H 2 O molecules . . . . . . . . H : O : + : O : H H : O : H + + : O : H -

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chapter 9 acids and bases
Chapter 9Acids and Bases

Ionization of Water

The pH Scale

LecturePLUS Timberlake

ionization of water
Ionization of Water

Occasionally, in water, a H+ is transferred between H2O molecules

. . . . . . . .

H:O: + :O:H H:O:H + + :O:H-

. . . . . . . .

HH H

water molecules hydronium hydroxide ion (+)ion (-)

LecturePLUS Timberlake

pure water is neutral
Pure Water is Neutral

Pure water contains small, but equal amounts of ions: H3O+ and OH-

H2O + H2O H3O+ + OH-

hydronium hydroxide ion ion

1 x 10-7 M1 x 10-7 M

H3O+

OH-

LecturePLUS Timberlake

ion product of water k w
Ion Product of Water Kw

[ ] = Molar concentration

Kw = [ H3O+ ] [ OH- ]

= [ 1 x 10-7 ][ 1 x 10-7 ]

= 1 x 10-14

LecturePLUS Timberlake

acids
Acids
  • Increase H+
  • HCl (g) + H2O (l)H3O+(aq) + Cl-(aq)
  • More [H3O+] than water > 1 x 10-7M
  • As H3O+ increases, OH- decreases

[H3O+] > [OH-]

H3O+

OH-

LecturePLUS Timberlake

bases
Bases
  • Increase the hydroxide ions (OH-)

H2O

  • NaOH (s) Na+(aq) + OH- (aq)
  • More [OH-] than water, [OH-] > 1 x 10-7M
  • When OH- increases, H3O+ decreases

[OH] > [H3O+]

OH-

H3O+

LecturePLUS Timberlake

using k w
Using Kw

The [OH- ] of a solution is 1.0 x 10- 3M. What is the [H3O+]?

Kw = [H3O+ ] [OH- ] = 1.0 x 10-14

[H3O+] = 1.0 x 10-14

[OH-]

[H3O+] = 1.0 x 10-14= 1.0 x 10-11 M

1.0 x 10- 3

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check ph1
Learning Check pH1

The [H3O+] of lemon juice is 1.0 x 10-3 M. What is the [OH-] of the solution?

1) 1.0 x 103 M

2) 1.0 x 10-11 M

3) 1.0 x 1011 M

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution ph1
Solution pH1

The [H3O+] of lemon juice is 1.0 x 10- 3 M. What is the [OH-]?

[OH- ] =1.0 x 10 -14 = 1.0 x 10-11 M

1.0 x 10 - 3

LecturePLUS Timberlake

using the calculator
Using the Calculator

1.0 x 10 -14

4.0 x 10-5

Enter1.0 EE +/- 14 4.0 EE+/- 5

= 2.5 x 10 -10

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check ph2
Learning Check pH2

The [OH-] of a solution is 5 x 10 -5 M. What is the [H3O+ ] of the solution?

1) 2 x 10- 5 M

2) 1 x 1010 M

3) 2 x 10-10 M

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution ph2
Solution pH2

The [OH-] of a water solution is 5 x 10-5 M. What is the [H3O+] in the solution?

[ H3O+] =1.0 x 10 -14

5 x 10- 5

On some calculators:

1.0 EE +/- 14 5 EE +/-5 = 2 x 10 -10 M

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check ph3
Learning Check pH3

A.The [OH-] when [H3O+ ] of 1 x 10- 4 M

1) 1 x 10-6 M

2) 1 x 10-8 M

3) 1 x 10-10 M

B.The [H3O+] when [OH- ] of 5 x 10-9 M

1) 1 x 10- 6 M

2) 2 x 10- 6 M

3) 2 x 10-7 M

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution ph3
Solution pH3

Kw = [H3O+ ][OH-] = 1.0 x 10 14

A. (3) [OH- ] = 1.0 x 10 -14 = 1.0 x 10 -10

1.0 x 10- 4

B.(2) [H3O+] = 1.0 x 10 -14 = 2 x 10 - 6

5 x 10- 9

LecturePLUS Timberlake

slide15
pH
  • Indicates the acidity [H3O+] of the solution
  • pH = - log [H3O+]
  • From the French pouvoir hydrogene

(“hydrogen power” or power of

hydrogen)

LecturePLUS Timberlake

slide16
pH

In the expression for [H3O+]

1 x 10-exponent

the exponent = pH

[H3O+] = 1 x 10-pH M

LecturePLUS Timberlake

ph range
pH Range

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 910 11 12 13 14

Neutral

[H+]>[OH-][H+] = [OH-][OH-]>[H+]

Acidic

Basic

LecturePLUS Timberlake

some h 3 o and ph
Some [H3O+] and pH

[H3O+] pH

1 x 10-5 M 5

1 x 10-9 M 9

1 x 10-11M 11

LecturePLUS Timberlake

ph of some common acids
pH of Some Common Acids

gastric juice 1.0

lemon juice 2.3

vinegar 2.8

orange juice 3.5

coffee 5.0

milk 6.6

LecturePLUS Timberlake

ph of some common bases
pH of Some Common Bases

blood 7.4

tears 7.4

seawater 8.4

milk of magnesia 10.6

household ammonia 11.0

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check ph4
Learning Check pH4

A. The [H3O+] of tomato juice is 1 x 10-4 M.

What is the pH of the solution?

1) - 4 2) 4 3) 8

B. The [OH-] of an ammonia solution is

1 x 10-3 M. What is the pH of the solution?

1) 3 2) 11 3) -11

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution ph4
Solution pH4

A. pH = - log [ 1 x 10-4] = -(- 4) = 4

B. [H3O+] = 1 x 10-11

pH = - log [ 1 x 10- 11] = -(- 11) = 11

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check ph5
Learning Check pH5

The pH of a soap is 10. What is the [H3O+] of the soap solution?

1) 1 x 10 - 4 M

2) 1 x 1010 M

3) 1 x 10 - 10 M

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution ph5
Solution pH5

The pH of a soap is 10. What is the [H3O+] of the soap solution?

[H3O+] = 1 x 10-pH M

= 1 x 10-10 M

LecturePLUS Timberlake

ph on the calculator
pH on the Calculator

[H3O+] is 4.5 x 10-6 M

pH = 4.5 x EXP(or EE) 6+/- LOG +/-

= 5.35

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check ph6
Learning Check pH6

A soap solution has a [H3O+] = 2 x 10-8 M. What is the pH of the solution?

1) 8

2) 7.7

3) 6

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution ph6
Solution pH6

A soap solution has a [H3O+] = 2.0 x 10-8 M. What is the pH of the solution?

B) 2.0 EE 8 +/- LOG +/- = 7.7

LecturePLUS Timberlake

learning check ph7
Learning Check pH7

Identify each solution as

1. acidic 2. basic 3. neutral

A. _____ HCl with a pH = 1.5

B. _____ Pancreatic fluid [H+] = 1 x 10-8 M

C. _____ Sprite soft drink pH = 3.0

D. _____ pH = 7.0

E. _____ [OH- ] = 3 x 10-10 M

F. _____ [H+ ] = 5 x 10-12

LecturePLUS Timberlake

solution ph7
Solution pH7

Identify each solution as

1. acidic 2. basic 3. neutral

A. _1__ HCl with a pH = 1.5

B. _2__ Pancreatic fluid [H+] = 1 x 10-8 M

C. _1__ Sprite soft drink pH = 3.0

D. _3__ pH = 7.0

E. _1__ [OH-] = 3 x 10-10 M

F. _2__ [H+] = 5 x 10-12

LecturePLUS Timberlake

acid rain
Acid Rain
  • Unpolluted rain has a pH of 5.6
  • Rain with a pH below 5.6 is “acid rain“
  • CO2 in the air forms carbonic acid

CO2 + H2O H2CO3

  • Adds to H+ of rain

H2CO3 H+ (aq) + HCO3-(aq)

Formation of acid rain:

1. Emission of sulfur and nitrogen oxides from the burning of fuels expecially coal with high S content, power stations, oil refineries, vehicles as well as bacterial decomposition, and lighting hitting N2

SO2 26 million tons in 1980

NO and NO2 22 million tons in 1980

Mt. St Helens (1980) 400,000 tons SO2

2. Reactions in the atmosphere form SO3

2SO2 + O2 2 SO3

3. Reactions with atmosphere water form acids

SO3 + H2O  H2SO4 sulfuric acid

NO + H2O  HNO2 nitrous acid

HNO2 + H2O  HNO3 nitric acid

4. Effects of Acid Rain

Decline in fish populations in rivers and lasts due to toxic effect of Al leached from soil by acid rain

Extensive fish kills in spring from runoff due to accumulation of large amounts of acid on the snow

Dissolves minerals Mg, Ca, and K from the soil and waxy coatings that protect leaves from bacteria

Corrodes metals, textiles, paper and leather

LecturePLUS Timberlake

sources of acid rain
Sources of Acid Rain
  • Power stations
  • Oil refineries
  • Coal with high S content
  • Car and truck emissions
  • Bacterial decomposition, and lighting hitting N2

LecturePLUS Timberlake

slide32
SO2 26 million tons in 1980

NO and NO2 22 million tons in 1980

Mt. St Helens (1980) 400,000 tons SO2

  • Reactions with oxygen in air form SO3

2SO2 + O2 2 SO3

  • Reactions with water in air form acids

SO3 + H2O H2SO4 sulfuric acid

NO + H2O HNO2 nitrous acid

HNO2 + H2O HNO3 nitric acid

LecturePLUS Timberlake

effects of acid rain
Effects of Acid Rain
  • Leaches Al from soil, which kills fish
  • Fish kills in spring from runoff due to accumulation of large amounts of acid in snow
  • Dissolves waxy coatings that protect leaves from bacteria
  • Corrodes metals, textiles, paper and leather

LecturePLUS Timberlake