Bell Ringer What are the 4 changes to the American System that came from the Market Revolution. AND Give an example of each. *Hint*
The American System • Second B.U.S.: • Regional system made it difficult to do business in different parts of the country • The 2nd BUS was not as controversial of an issue as the tariff • Allowed for one currency to be available in all regions • Chartered by Congress in 1816 for 20 years • Transportation: • Needed a better transportation system over land • Mostly funded by the individual states • The National Road (connected Maryland to the Ohio River Valley) • The Erie Canal made NYC a dominant port city (like Boston and New Orleans) • Tariff of 1816: • British goods were cheaper than domestic goods • Britain flooded the American market with goods after the War of 1812 • This tariff would raise the price of British goods, making domestic goods more competitive • Most “Northerners” approved of the tariff, while most “Southerners” did not • The tariff passed when Clay and Calhoun endorsed it • (remember these names?) In 1815, President Madison hoped to unite (bring together) the country’s diverse economies. The plan was endorsed by many, even long time Madison critics Clay and Calhoun!
Nationalism – Domestic Policy As the presidents added new territories to the United States, settlers pushed into those new areas. However, as territories grew in population, a problem would surface. • Problem: • Missouri was ready to become a state. The argument started over if that state should be a “free” or “slave” state. • Either way, it would throw off the balance in Congress (making it 12 for one side and 11 for the other) • States as of 1818: • 10 “Free states” • 10 “Slave states” • States as of 1819: • 11 “Free states” • 11 “Slave states” • Solution: • Missouri Compromise 1820 • Missouri would be added to the United States as a “slave state” • Maine would be added as a “free state” • Set up the 36* 30’ line
Nationalism – Foreign Policy Background: Many European countries had different land claims & authority in different regions of the Western Hemisphere… (Canada, Mexico, America, Caribbean, etc.) • Land Acquisition • U.S. & Canada: • Demilitarized the border • Fixed the border at the 49th parallel • Adams-Onis Treaty: • Spain ceded Florida to U.S. • Spain gave up its claim to the Oregon Territory • Monroe Doctrine • Background: • Russia, Spain, and Portugal all making a push for land rights in the west • President Monroe warned all outside powers not to interfere with the western hemisphere James Monroe as president, the U.S. continued to expand its territories and assert its place as a strong and independent nation!
Nationalism – The Supreme Court Fletcher vs. Peck Nullified a Georgia law that violated an individuals right to enter into a contract McCulloch vs. Maryland The state of Maryland could not tax the national bank (more details to come) Gibbons vs. Ogden Ruled that only the federal government could regulate trade between states: - interstate or intrastate (more details to come) Dartmouth College vs. Woodward The state could not interfere with the college’s charter because it was a contract Just like Marbury vs. Madison, the Marshall Court continued to strengthen the Supreme Court’s power. Giving it precedence to not only strike down federal laws (by saying they are “unconstitutional”) but also nullify state laws that violate the constitution.