Life of ordinary Soviets There was no freedom because all was on Stalin’s hands. You were killed if you be disloyal to him or if you are not agree with his ideas. This makes people to be careful in what they thought or wants to argument, they were limited to talk and in that way they “censor” their liberty. Censorship NO FREDOM!
1930’ Great Terror Spread to ordinary people – anybody who looked as though they had a will of their own. People who had their own ideas and don’t want to follow Stalin’s ideas, were sent to the : 1/2 Gulag System of labor camps (Siberia) Where 20 millions ordinary Russian were sent. NO FREDOM! Stalin wanted people who follow his ideas Dictatorship
Praise Stalin! Credited him with every success Parents taught their children to love Stalin (Indoctrination) Poets thanks him for giving harvest Stalin set up a totalitarian Dictatorship where on one word from him, the entire Soviet Union did exactly what he said. Need to create Unity, and strong control to modernise Russia.
“What crimes were being committed in his name” Russification: • Ethnic groups were persecuted (costums and language) Enforcedthroughoutthe soviet Union. FORBIDDEN • People who had annoyed their neighbors were turned into the NKVD (the secret policy and arrested, never to be seen again. 18 years of prison, labor camps and exile
The NKVD was the public and secret police organization of the USSR that directly executed the rule of power of the soviets. The NKVD contained the public police force of the USSR but is better known for the activities of the Gulag and the Main Directorate for State Security which eventually became the Committee for State Security. What is the NKVD? NKVD activities
Domesticrepressions and executions • International operations, kidnappings, and assassinations • Spanish Civil War • WorldWar II operations • Postwaroperations • Soviet economy
TheKatynMassacre.. April – May 1940 This massacre was a mass murder of Polish people. Carried out by the NKVD Take place: KatynForest/ Russia Proposal to execute all members of the Polish Officer Corps.
The NKGB Triumph of the Bolshevik Revolution AIM: Soviet Union needed an intelligence service that act in and out the country • discover and fight the opponents of the government They needed a very effective secret police
the majority of people who were inside the labour camps was because of the Great purge. • Kirov was a member of the Politburo, he was shot in the back by Leonid Nikolayev on 1 December 1934 • 2 strange things happened between Kirov´s murder • Only few days before killing Kirov, Nikolayev was arrested by the secret police, but then the guards release him and give him his gun. • Kirov´s bodyguard who was with him all day long, was not seen in the murder, the day after he died in a car crash with several passengers. The Purges.
The same day of Kirov`s murder, Stalin give and order against terrorism. • Many evidence prove that Stalin gave order to the secret police that allowed Nikolayev to kill Kirov. Stalin wanted Kirov dead because he was a threat to his power. • THE GREAT PURGE. • The start of the major purge of the party, this means that those who weren`t reliable were expelled from the party. • The Party Central Committee sent letters to the braches of USSR, giving orders to check every member.
After checking every member , those who were accused of being ¨ TROTSKYITES¨ went to meetings . Written denunciations were also valid. • When the party members were accused they were purged form the party, this mean they were expelled. • They were not only purged from the party, they also loose their jobs. • If you were accused your friends and neighbours didn´t wanted to have any contact at all with you, because later on they were going to be accused of the same crimes you were. • After this in the majority of cases the NKVD ( people commissariat of internal affairs) arrested you.
Show Trials? MainPurpose… • The main purpose of the Show trials was to eliminate all the political defeaters to Stalin Authority.. Mainly the Old Bolsheviks. • This Trials were started by Joseph Stalin between August 1936, January 1937, and March 1938. • The different between the trials and the purges was that the trials were public for all the people. • The trials were public shooting for the members that were accused on the purges for having some charges and things in favour of Trotsky.
First Trial… • In the First trial 16 members of "Trotskyite-Zinovievite Terrorist Centre were sentenced to execute and death. • The most important politicians blamed in this trial were Grigory Zinoviev and Lev Kamanev this where two important political leaders. • This trial was set up on August 1936
Second Trial • 17 political members from a less authority were involved in this Trial. The higher politicians from this 17 members were including Karl Radek, Yuri Piatakov and GrigorySokolnikov. • 13 of this 17 political members were executed. The other 7 were send to labour camps in Russia. • This trial was set up in January 1937.
Third Trial • Thethird trial includes 21 guiltypoliticalmembersthatbelongto"Bloc of Rightists and Trotskyites“. • This group was led by Nikolai Bukharin who was sentenced a year after. • The head of the communist international, Prime Minister Alexey Rikov,GenrikhYagoda, Christian Rakovsky and Nikolai Kretinskyall this members were executed. • This trial was set March 1938 • There was a secret trial. This trial sentenced the Red army generals. Mikhail Tukhachevsky was sentenced to death.
The labour camps were stablished in the first years of the comunist regime in the Soviet Union. This camps were for people to work. In the five-year plans were some Taks that were so big and ambitious that there were not enough workers, so in some cases prisioners, from prision camps were made to do work. Their prisioners therefore becameslaves. What were labour camps?
Gulag In thelabourcampstheyneedsomeonetorun them, so in 1930 a specialdepartment of the secretpolicewas set up it and itwascalled Gulag theChiefAdministration of thecamps. The Gulag wastheonethatorganizedallthework In thecamps and theoneto set theworkfor thepeople.
Who went there? • Thepeoplethatwenttothelabourcampswere: • TheKulaks • Workerswhohadfailedtoachievethe targets of the • five-yearplans • Ordinarycriminals • Peoplethatwerearrestedduringthe Great Purge
What was it like living there? • Living in the labour camps was horrible. • the majority of the prisoners had meagre • food rations • inadequate clothing • poor and insulated houses • poor hygiene • inappropriate health care.