電腦的故事 From Wikipedia 陽明大學 高怡宣. The Story of Computer – adapted from Wikipedia Historically, computers evolved from mechanical ( 機械式 ) components to vacuum tubes ( 真空管 ), then to transistors ( 電晶體 ). The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs ( 程式 )
電腦的故事 From Wikipedia 陽明大學 高怡宣
The Story of Computer • – adapted from Wikipedia • Historically, computers evolved from • mechanical (機械式) components to • vacuum tubes (真空管),then to • transistors (電晶體).
The ability to store and execute lists of instructions called programs (程式) • makes computers extremely versatile, distinguishing them from calculators.
The most common examples for mechanical computers are adding machines. They were used in gun fire control in World War II and the Korean War. Hamman Manus R mechanical computer, produced in Germany by the DeTeWe company between 1953 and 1959.
Computers using vacuum tubes (真空管)as their electronic elements were in use throughout the 1950s.
The Zuse Z3, 1941, was considered the world's first working programmable and fully automatic computing machine.
The ENIAC, which became operational in 1946, was considered to be the first general-purpose electronic computer.
The mathematical operations used in an electric (電子的) analog (類比的) computer are: • summation • integration • inversion • multiplication • exponentiation • logarithm • division A Polish analog computer AKAT-1, made of transistors in 1959.
A transistor (電晶體)is used to amplify (放大) and switch (切換) electronic signals and electrical power.
In 1947, William Bradford Shockley Jr. with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, at Bell’s Laboratory invented the transistor. Photo of (from left) John Bardeen, William Shockley and Walter Brattain, the inventors of the transistor.
In 1956, Shockley opened Shockley semiconductor laboratory. As a result of Shockley‘s abusive (粗魯的) management style, eight engineers left the company to form Fairchild Semiconductor (半導體)in 1957. The group later became known widely as the Traitorous (背叛的) Eight (8人).
The “Traitorous Eight” are eight men who left Shockley Semiconductor Laboratory in 1957, to form Fairchild Semiconductor. Moore Noyce
Over the course of 20 years, eight of Shockley’s former employees started 65 new enterprises (企業). Shockley Semiconductor and these companies formed the nucleus of what became Silicon Valley (矽谷), which revolutionized the world of electronics. From: maps.google.com.tw
Two of the original employees of Fairchild Semiconductor, Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, later founded INTEL. INTEL was an early developer of static and dynamic Random Assess Memory (DRAM) chips, from 1971 to 1981.
INTEL created the first commercially available microprocessor (微處理器) (4004) in 1971 and one of the first microcomputers (微電腦) in 1972. By the end of the 1990s, its line of Pentium central processer units (CPU) had become a household name.
The Intel 4004 is a 4-bit CPU released by INTEL in 1971. IBM The 6502 is an 8-bit CPU produced by MOS Technology (related to Motorola) in 1975. Apple
In 1976, Steve Jobs, Steve Wozniak and Ronald Wayne, with funding from A.C. "Mike" Markkula Jr., founded the Apple company. Wozniak in 1983
Apple I was hand-built by Wozniak and it was sold as an assemble kit at a market price of $666.66 in 1976. Apple I computer, with a 6502 CPU @ 1 MHz
Apple Computer, Ronald Wayne Wayne drew the first Apple logo and wrote the Apple I manual. Wayne received a 10% stake in Apple, but relinquished his stock for US$800 on April 13, 1976.
The Apple II is a home computer, one of the first highly successful mass-produced microcomputer products, designed primarily by Wozniak in 1977. Jobs
The Apple II computer has a 6502 CPU running at 1 MHz, 4 kB of RAM, an audio cassette for loading programs and storing data, color monitor, and the Integer BASIC programming language built into the ROMs. Apple II The Apple II computer on display at the Museum of the Moving Image in New York City
Apple Computer, Steven Jobs In 1983, Jobs lured John Sculleyaway from Pepsi-Cola to serve as Apple's CEO, asking, The first Macintosh, released in 1984
"Do you want to sell sugar water for the rest of your life, or do you want to come with me and change the world?”
Apple Computer, Steven Jobs In 1985, Jobs was fired by Sculley; and Jobs founded NeXT Inc., five months later, in the same year.
Apple Computer, Steven Jobs In 1986, Jobs bought Pixar. He was the executive producer of the movie: Toy Story (1995). Other movies include: A Bug‘s Life (1998); Toy Story 2 (1999); Monsters, Inc. (2001); Finding Nemo (2003); The Incredibles (2004); Cars (2006); Ratatouille (2007); WALL-E (2008); Up (2009); and Toy Story 3 (2010).
Apple Computer, Steven Jobs In 2006, Disney purchased Pixar and Jobs became the Walt Disney Company's largest single shareholder. In 1996, Jobs returned to Apple company.
Apple Computer, Steven Jobs The introduction of the iPod in 2001 resulted in Apple becoming a major player in the music industry. Also, the iPod's success prepared the way for the iTunes music store. The iPhone was released on June 29, 2007. The iPad was released on April 3, 2010.
Apple Computer, A.C. (Mike) Markkula He made millions on stock options he acquired as a marketing manager for Fairchild Semiconductor and Intel, and retired at 32. Markkula brought his business expertise along with US$ 250,000 and became a one-third owner of Apple and employee number 3. (Venture Capital, 創業投資基金)
Apple Computer, A.C. (Mike) Markkula In 1985 Markkula took Sculley's side in a dispute with Jobs, causing the latter to leave the company, and in 1993 he helped to force Sculley out. In 1996, Jobs returned to Apple company.
IBM (International Business Machine) IBM introduced the personal computer (PC) in 1981. IBM decided on an open architecture, so that other manufacturers could produce and sell peripheral components and compatible software.
Microsoft, Paul Allen Microsoft was founded by Bill Gates and Paul Allen in 1975, to develop and sell BASICfor Altair 8800 computer. Gates Allen
Microsoft, Bill (William) Gates IBM approached Microsoft in 1980 regarding an operating system. Gates referred them to Digital Research. IBM and Digital Research did not reach an agreement.
Microsoft, Bill (William) Gates In 1981, Microsoft purchased QDOS (quick and dirty operating system) for $50,000. Microsoft licensed it to IBM, and the license also permitted Microsoft to sell DOS to other companies. This contract led to Allen and Gates' wealth.
Microsoft, Bill (William) Gates Microsoft DOS was released in 1981. Microsoft Windows was released in 1984. Microsoft Office, including: Word, Excel, Power Point, was released in 1990.
Bill Gates response to Steve Jobs On Windows Rip-Off Claim Their meeting was in Jobs’s conference room, where Gates found himself surrounded by ten Apple employees who were eager to watch their boss assail (責罵) him.
Bill Gates response to Steve Jobs On Windows Rip-Off Claim Jobs didn’t disappoint his troops. “You’re ripping us off!” He shouted. “I trusted you, and now you’re stealing from us!”
Gates just sat there coolly, looking Steve in the eye, before hurling back, in his squeaky voice, what became a classic zinger. “Well, Steve, I think there’s more than one way of looking at it. http://microsoft-news.com/bill-gates-response-to-steve-jobs-on-windows-rip-off-claim/
I think it’s more like we both had this rich neighbor named Xerox and I broke into his house to steal the TV set and found out that you had already stolen it.” http://microsoft-news.com/bill-gates-response-to-steve-jobs-on-windows-rip-off-claim/
Engineers at Xerox invented: the graphic interface, the computer mouse, and desktop computing. The board of directors ordered the Xerox engineers to share them with Apple technicians. The features were taken on by Apple and, later, Microsoft.
Chinese Computer and 朱邦復 朱邦復為倉頡輸入法、中文電腦、漢卡的發明人。 朱邦復原先構想是改良中文印刷技術，以中文打字機為實踐目標，發展中文檢索方式。
Chinese Computer and 朱邦復 後有畢業於臺大中文系的沈紅蓮女士協助，於1976年發表中文形意檢字法，獲蔣緯國將軍命名為倉頡輸入法，意為上古時代倉頡造字的精神。
Chinese Computer and 朱邦復 在宏碁電腦施振榮先生的技術支援，於1980年，發表首部中文電腦—天龍中文電腦，售價75萬元新台幣。 中文電腦售價太高，難以普及。為提供更廉價的中文電腦，朱邦復利用當時Apple II 電腦熱潮，研發該機之中文介面—「漢卡」，售價新台幣1500元。
Chinese Computer and 朱邦復 朱邦復於1990年將Windows 3.0 中文化。當微軟提出收購朱邦復的中文化技術時，朱邦復開價6000萬美金。隨後，微軟放棄收購，改採日本漢字技術，推出新版Windows。 1999年，朱邦復應香港文化傳信公司之邀，遷居澳門，進行一系列中文資訊計劃：倉頡電書（中文電子書包）、中文CPU（易芯CPU系列、天龍CPU系列）。
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