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Chronology of Boxed Section March 1936 Rhineland July 1936 - 39 Spain March 1938 Anschluss October 1938 Munich 1920s – 1939 Overview (8 marker) Issues: Factors shaping Government reaction to events i.e. the use of appeasement - political - economic - military
March 1936 Rhineland
July 1936 - 39 Spain
March 1938 Anschluss
October 1938 Munich
1920s – 1939 Overview (8 marker)
Issues: Factors shaping Government reaction to events i.e. the use of appeasement
- public opinion
- dilemmas (public and private concerns of the government at the time which influenced how they dealt with issues at the time
Source B: extract from 'Homage to Catalonia' written by George Orwell – 1938
When I came to Spain, and for some time afterwards, I was not only uninterested in the political situation but unaware of it. I knew there was a war on, but I had no notion what kind of war. If you had asked me why I had joined the militia I should have answered: "To fight against Fascism", and if you had asked me what I was fighting for, I should have answered: common decency.
To understand the alignment on the Government side, one has got to remember how the war started. When the fighting broke out on 18th July it is probable that every anti-Fascist in Europe felt a thrill of hope. For here at last, apparently, was democracy standing up to Fascism. For years past, the so-called democratic countries had been surrendering to Fascism at every step. But when Franco tried to overthrow a mildly Left-wing Government the Spanish people, against all expectation, had risen against him. It seemed - possibly it was - the turning of the tide.
2. How typical of British opinion at the time were the views of Source B? 5
2. How typical of British opinion at the time were the views of Source B?
Step 3 – Select relevant points from the source and use recall to evaluate each point
Point one from source
Fighting against fascism & for common decency
Every anti-fascist felt a thrill of hope
Here at last, democracy standing up to Fascism
Years past, so-called democratic countries surrendering
Franco resisted; this was possibly the turning of the tide
How typical of British opinion at the time were the views of Source B?
So Orwell offers a fairly untypical view of the British opinion during the Spanish Civil War.
However, a significant minority supported Orwell’s views e.g. David Low in his cartoons, individual trade unionists, idealists, left wing supporters like Jack Jones, Donald Renton and J. Gurney whose letters and books reflect their passionate opposition to the role of fascist help for Franco from Italy and Germany.
General opinion in the UK was divided (some were moved by plight of the children of Spain who came over as refugees) but the majority did not share the sentiments of the author for a variety of reasons.
Additional recall giving the majority view e.g. the vast majority viewed the Spanish Civil War in different ways to Orwell...
As it was, the Popular Front lost the civil war a year after the publication of the book by Orwell. The tide was sadly not turned as Orwell had hoped and the fascist-backed regime of Franco won and was to remain in power until 1975.
Orwell’s views were in the minority and untypical of how most people viewed the issues underlying the war in Spain.
1-2 Selects some relevant evidence from the source and/or recalled knowledge but without making the required evaluation.
3-4 Selects relevant evidence from the source and uses limited recall to inform a basic evaluation in terms of the question.
5 Establishes the main points in the source and uses recalled knowledge to evaluate these and reach an appropriate conclusion.