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BODY FLUID COMPARTMENT AND FLUID BALANCE. Body fluid compartment . ECF also includes lymph, CSF, synovial fluid, aqueous & vitreous humor, endolymph & perilymph and fuild present in pleural, pericardial and peritoneal cavities .

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Body fluid compartment

ECF also includes lymph, CSF, synovial fluid, aqueous & vitreous humor, endolymph & perilymph and fuild present in pleural, pericardial and peritoneal cavities

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The osmosis, diffusion, filtration and reabsoption provide for continual exchange of water and solutes (electrolytes) among different body compartments

Yet, the volume of the fluid in different body compartments remains remarkably stable

sources of body water gain and loss
Sources of body water gain and loss

Body fluid volume remains constant because water loss is equal to water gain

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Sourse of metabolic water

Rate of formation of metabolic water is not regulated

regulation of body water gain
Regulation of body water gain

Baroreceptor

2% decrease in body mass due to fluid loss causes mild dehydration

Rate of formation of metabolic

water is not regulated to maintain homeostasis

Water gain is regulated mainly

by drinking through thirst

mechanism

regulation of water and solute loss
Regulation of water and solute loss

This is mainly done by the kidneys

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Osmolality vs Osmolarity

  • One osmole is 1 gram molecular weight of undissociated solute.
  • Thus, 180 grams of glucose, which is 1 gram molecular weight of glucose, is equal to 1 osmole of glucose because glucose does not dissociate.
  • Therefore, 1 gram molecular weight of NaCl (58.5 gm) is equal to 2 osmole because NaCl dissociates into Na+ and Cl- (and both are osmotically active).
  • A solution that has 1 osmole of solute dissolved in 1 Kilogram of water is said to have an Osmolalityof 1 osmole per kilogram.
  • A solution that has 1 osmole of solute dissolved in 1 liter (1000 ml) of water is said to have an Osmolarityof 1 osmole per liter.
principle of osmosis
Principle of Osmosis

Osmosis is the net movement of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane

During osmosis water molecules pass through a selectively permeable membrane in two ways (1) through the lipid bilayer and (2) through aquaporins (aqua = water) channels.

osmolarity
Osmolarity

Is a measure of the total number of dissolved particles in a solution

Ionic composition of the ICF fluidisdifferent from that of ECF

But Osmolarity of ICF is equal to that of ECF.

ecf is isotonic
ECF IS ISOTONIC

Osmotic equilibrium is maintained rapidly between ICF and ECF

  • Isotonic fluid gain: e.g Intravenous infusion of isotonic saline (0.9 % NaCl, 5% glcose solution)
  • Isotonic fluid loss: Hemorrhage
  • No net fluid shift occur
ecf is hypertonic
ECF IS HYPERTONIC
  • What happens ?
  • Water moves out of the cells to ECF until osmotic equilibrium is achieved
  • Cells shrink as water leaves them
  • Neurons dehydration causes disturbances in brain function manifested as mental confusion to coma.

What Causes this?

  • Dehydration due to:
  • Insufficient water intake
  • Excessive water loss (vomiting or diarrhea)
  • Diabetes Insipidus (deficiency of ADH)

Accumulation of high levels of osmotically

active solutes (urea in kidney failure)

ecf is hypotonic
ECF IS HYPOTONIC

What happens ?

Water moves into the cells from ECF until osmotic equilibrium is achieved.

Pronounced swelling of neurons leads to brain dysfunction

Swelling of muscle leads to muscle weakness.

Hypertension and edema caused by expansion of plasma volume.

What Causes this?

Over hydration: Renal failure with inability to excrete diluted urine

Excessive drinking (transient)

Increase in ADH secretion

Water intoxication: condition of over hydration, hypotonicity and

cellular swelling from excess water.

measurement of fluid volumes in the different body compartments
Measurement of fluid volumes in the different body compartments

Dye-dilution metod (Indicator-dilution)