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Fluid and Electrolyte Balance. Electrolytes. Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) help keep fluids in the proper compartments Intracellular water Extracellular water. Electrolytes. Enable nerves to respond Signal muscles to contract. Primary electrolytes-major minerals.

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electrolytes
Electrolytes
  • Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) help keep fluids in the proper compartments
    • Intracellular water
    • Extracellular water
electrolytes3
Electrolytes
  • Enable nerves to respond
  • Signal muscles to contract
primary electrolytes major minerals
Primary electrolytes-major minerals
  • More than 0.1 grams (or 100 mg) required per day in the diet
  • These include:
    • Sodium
    • Potassium
    • Chloride
    • Phosphorus
sodium ion of table salt nacl
Sodium: + ion of table salt (NaCl)
  • No known human diet lacks sodium
  • Minimum requirement about 500 mg/day
    • estimated safe and adequate Daily intake
  • Average intake in US for men = 3300 mg/day(equal to 8 grams of salt/day)
  • AI = 1500 mg/day
  • <2400 mg/day most common rec.
sodium functions
Sodium Functions

Scientific Method

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  • Fluid balance
  • Blood pressure
  • Acid-base balance
  • Nerve transmission
  • Active transport mechanism
hypertension
Hypertension
  • Definition
  • Diastolic Blood Pressure
    • > 90 mm Hg
  • Systolic Blood Pressure
    • >140 mm Hg
  • Desirable < 120/80
hypertension and disease
Hypertension and Disease
  • Stroke
    • 2/3rds with first stroke have HTN
    • 7 times more likely than normal
  • Coronary heart disease
    • 1/2 with first MI have HTN
    • 3 times more likely than normal
  • End-stage Renal Failure
  • Blindness
risk factors
Risk Factors
  • Age
  • Ethnicity
  • Family History
  • Obesity
diet and hypertension
Diet and Hypertension
  • Weight Loss
  • Moderate weight loss
  • Regular exercise
diet and hypertension13
Diet and Hypertension
  • Alcohol
    • < 1-2 servings per day
    • >2 servings increases risk of HTN
  • Potassium
    • fruits and vegetables
  • Fish Oils
  • Calcium
  • Calcium, Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center
the dash diet
The DASH Diet
  • Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension
  • Diet rich in
    • fruit
    • vegetable
    • grain products
  • Low/non fat dairy, fish and meats
dash na conclusions
DASH-Na Conclusions
  • DASH diet lowers BP
  • Sodium reduction lowers BP
  • Combination of DASH and Na reduction effects greater than separately
    • DASH+low-Na reduced Systolic BP by:
      • 11.5mm Hg in HTN subjects
      • 7.1 mm Hg in borderline HTN subjects