Fluid and Electrolyte Balance - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

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  1. Fluid and Electrolyte Balance

  2. Electrolytes • Electrolytes (sodium, potassium, chloride) help keep fluids in the proper compartments • Intracellular water • Extracellular water

  3. Electrolytes • Enable nerves to respond • Signal muscles to contract

  4. Primary electrolytes-major minerals • More than 0.1 grams (or 100 mg) required per day in the diet • These include: • Sodium • Potassium • Chloride • Phosphorus

  5. Sodium: + ion of table salt (NaCl) • No known human diet lacks sodium • Minimum requirement about 500 mg/day • estimated safe and adequate Daily intake • Average intake in US for men = 3300 mg/day(equal to 8 grams of salt/day) • AI = 1500 mg/day • <2400 mg/day most common rec.

  6. Sodium Functions Scientific Method Google Image Result for www.cat.cc.md.us/courses/bio141/lecguide/unit1/eustruct/images/sppump.gif • Fluid balance • Blood pressure • Acid-base balance • Nerve transmission • Active transport mechanism

  7. Hypertension • Definition • Diastolic Blood Pressure • > 90 mm Hg • Systolic Blood Pressure • >140 mm Hg • Desirable < 120/80

  8. Hypertension and Disease • Stroke • 2/3rds with first stroke have HTN • 7 times more likely than normal • Coronary heart disease • 1/2 with first MI have HTN • 3 times more likely than normal • End-stage Renal Failure • Blindness

  9. Blood Pressure

  10. Risk Factors • Age • Ethnicity • Family History • Obesity

  11. Diet and Hypertension • Weight Loss • Moderate weight loss • Regular exercise

  12. Diet and Hypertension • Alcohol • < 1-2 servings per day • >2 servings increases risk of HTN • Potassium • fruits and vegetables • Fish Oils • Calcium • Calcium, Linus Pauling Institute's Micronutrient Information Center

  13. The DASH Diet • Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension • Diet rich in • fruit • vegetable • grain products • Low/non fat dairy, fish and meats

  14. DASH-Na Conclusions • DASH diet lowers BP • Sodium reduction lowers BP • Combination of DASH and Na reduction effects greater than separately • DASH+low-Na reduced Systolic BP by: • 11.5mm Hg in HTN subjects • 7.1 mm Hg in borderline HTN subjects