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Chapter Twenty. Chance Encounter. MANSERUNT. VOCABULARIA. They stayed. POST. VOCABULARIA. after. MEDIUS, -A, -UM. VOCABULARIA. m edia nox - midnight. Mid-, middle of. Licetne nobis …?. VOCABULARIA. Is it allowed for us…? May we…?. PAULISPER. VOCABULARIA. For a short time. ESTO!.

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media nox-midnight

Mid-, middle of




Is it allowed for us…?

May we…?




For a short time




You have sent




While…were devouring





Best, very good


Cur non…istis?


Why didn’t you go?




To tell (a story)

vocab list
Vocab List


paulisper-for a short time

  • numquam-never
  • antea-before


maneo, manere, mansi, mansus-to remain

mitto, mittere, misi, missus-to send

volo, velle, volui-to want, wish

dico, dicere, dixi, dictus-to say

neco, necare, necavi, necatus-to kill

 narro, narrare, narravi, narratus-to tell



  •  In hanccauponam-into this inn


narratus, -a, -um-told

  • medius, -a, -um-middle
  • optimus, -a, -um-best



Noun Phrase

media nox-midnight

  •  Dum…devorant-While…were devouring
  •  Viroptime-sir


Licetnenobis…? Is it allowed for us…?

  •  Cur non…istis? Why didn’t you go?


Esto! All right!


fabula, -ae, f.-story

  • miles, militis, m.-soldier
workbook activity 20g
Workbook Activity 20G

To what Latin word are all of the following English words related?______________

1. Dictate A.


2. Dictionary

3. Predict

4. Edict

5. Indict




  • The ______________ of the story was difficult.
  • Our ______________forces won a great victory in battle.
  • An ______________ person always looks on the bright side.
  • The ______________ divided the highway.
  • The book of Aesop’s ______________ teaches lessons with morals to help children develop strong character.
constructing derivatives
Constructing Derivatives
  • Postpone
  • Post-Secondary
  • Postnatal
  • Postorbital
  • Postprandial
  • Post mortem
  • Post partum
  • Postscript
  • Posthumous

Chance Encounter: Lines 1-11

Ubi Cornelia et mater cubitumierunt, Marcus et Sextus cum Cornelio manserunt. Cum Cornelio cenare et post cenam ad mediamnoctemvigilare in animohabuerunt, namomniavidere et omniaaudirevoluerunt.


Marcus, “Esurio, pater,” inquit. “Esurisnetuquoque, Sexte?”

“Itavero!” responditSextus.

“Semperesuritis, tu et Marcus!” exclamavit Cornelius.

“Licetnenobis,” inquit Marcus, “hic cenare?”


Paulispertacebatpater, sed tandem, “Esto!” inquit. “Tibi et Sexto licet hic cenare. Post cenamtamennecesseeststatimcubitum ire.”

Riseruntpueri quod laetierant. “Gaudemus, pater,” inquit Marcus, “quod nos in cubiculum non statimmisisti. Voluimusenim hic manere et aliosviatoresspectare.”


Chance Encounter: Lines 12-25

Tum Cornelius cauponemiussitcibumparare. Brevi tempore servuscibum ad eosportavit. Dum puericibumdevorant, subitointravit miles quidam. Corneliumattentespectavit. “Salve, viroptime!” inquit. “Salvete, pueri! Cur vos in hanccauponamintravistis? Cur non ad villamhospitisistis? Nonnetues senator Romanus?”


“Senator Romanus sum,” respondit Cornelius. “Nos in hanccauponamintravimus quod raeda nostra in fossahaeretimmobilis. In agrisnoctemanerenolebamus, sednumquamantea in cauponapernoctavimus. Certe in agrispernoctareestpericulosum.”


Tum miles, “Etiam in cauponapernoctavimus. Certe in agrispernoctareestpericulosum.”

“Cur hoc nobisdicis?” rogavit Cornelius. “Estne hic caupo homo scelestus? De Apollodoro quid audivisti?”


“De Apollodoronihilaudivi, sedsemperestpericulosum in cauponapernoctare. Vosneaudivistisillamfabulam de cauponenarratam? Illecaupohospitemnecavit.”

“Minime!” inquit Cornelius. “Illamfabulam non audivi. Cur igiturnobisillam non narrasdumcenamus?”

forms consolidation of perfect tense
Forms: Consolidation of Perfect Tense
  • Most common verb tense
  • Formation:
    • 3rd PP - final i + perfect tense personal endings

Porto, portare, portavi-to carry

First Conjugation

Timeo, timere, timui-to fear

Second Conjugation

Dico, dicere, dixi-to say

Third Conjugation

Venio, venire, veni-to come

Fourth Conjugation

Sum, esse, fui-to be


6. misimus

7. discessistis

8. dormivit

9. petiverunt

10. intravisti

11. haesi

12. iussimus

13. necavistis

14. erraverunt

15. discessit

1. spectavimus

2. gemuerunt

3. necavi

4. erravit

5. tenuisti

change from perfect to imperfect
Change from perfect to imperfect

6. misimus

7. discessistis

8. dormivit

9. petiverunt

10. intravisti

11. haesi

12. iussimus

13. necavistis

14. erraverunt

15. discessit

1. spectavimus

2. gemuerunt

3. necavi

4. erravit

5. tenuisti

change from perfect to present
Change from perfect to present

6. misimus

7. discessistis

8. dormivit

9. petiverunt

10. intravisti

11. haesi

12. iussimus

13. necavistis

14. erraverunt

15. discessit

1. spectavimus

2. gemuerunt

3. necavi

4. erravit

5. tenuisti

give the latin for
Give the Latin for:

6. She guarded

7. He groaned

8. They killed

9. We sent

10. I led

11. They spoke

12. She prepared

13. You all had

14. They did

15. He threw

1. I told

2. He saw

3. We ran

4. They walked

5. You slept

book activity 20b
Book Activity 20B
  • Ego libero in hortopetiv________; tueos in silvainven________.

2. Ubitunica Sexti in ramishaerebat, nosomnesris________.

3. Quo iit Cornelia? Ego et Marcus patrem hoc rogav________, sedillenihil respond________.

4. QuamquamSextusfuitmolestus, servieum non verberv________.

5. Ubiheri fu________, Marce et Cornelia? Pater et mater nosiuss________ hic manere.


6. Postquamvoscenav________, cubitum ire volu________.

7. Herinos in urbeeramus, sedmatremibi non vid________.

8. “Undeven________, amici?” rogav________ caupo. “Quo nuncitis?”

9. Tune Corneliumvid________, ubituRomamadven________? Ego certeeum non vid________.

10. Ille, postquamhaecaudiv________, e caupona se praecipitav________.

building the meaning subordinate clauses with the conjunction dum
Building the MeaningSubordinate Clauses with the Conjunction dum

Examples with subordinate clauses introduced by the conjunction dum:

DumCorneliicenant, miles fabulamnarrat.Sub & Main Clauses=Present Tense

Whilethe Corneliieatdinner, the soldier tells a story.

DumCorneliicenabant, miles fabulamnarrabat. Sub & Main Clauses=Imperfect Tense

Whilethe Corneliiwere eating dinner, the soldier was telling a story.

Actions are taking place at the same time, or over the same period of time in the past.

Dumpuericibumdevorant, subitointravit miles quidam.

Whilethe boys weredevouring their food, a certain soldier suddenly entered.

Now the verb in the subordinate clause is in present tense, and the verb of the main clause is in the perfect tense. The subordinate clause describes an action that was continuing over a period of time in the past when SUDDENLY a single, simple action occurred.

Latin uses the present tense in clauses starting with dum when the main clause is in the perfect tense.

Translate as while…were verbing…

building the meaning uses of the infinitive
Building the MeaningUses of the Infinitive
  • The infinitive is a form of the verb without person or number, giving its basic meaning.
  • The present infinitive form gives you the PRESENT STEM and enables you to identify the CONJUGATION of the verb.
  • (1st-are, 2nd-ēre, 3rd-ere, 4th-ire)


Verbs which imply ANOTHER ACTION OF THE SAME SUBJECT to complete their meaning take the infinitive.

    • Examples:

Marcus arbores ascenderenonvult.

Marcus does not wantto climb trees.

Multi viatores ad meamcauponamveniresolent.

Many travelers are accustomedto come to my inn.



Necesseest and licet are said to be impersonal because the subject IT is supplied. The infinitives are actually the grammatical subjects.

  • Examples:

Nobisnecesseeststatimdiscedere. Itisnecessary for us toleave immediately.

Vobislicet hic cenare. Itispermitted for you todine here.


Infinitive is used as a verbal noun and it neuter in gender.

  • Examples:

Certe in agrispernoctareestpericulosum.

To spend the night in the fields is certainly dangerous.


  • Examples:

Aurelia Corneliamdocetvillamcurare.

Aurelia teachesCornelia (how) totakecareof the country house.

Ancillamiubet alias tunicas et stolas et pallas in cistamponere.

Sheorders a slave-womantoput other tunics and stolas and pallas into a chest.

workbook activity 20c
Workbook Activity 20C

1. Flavia et Cornelia cubitumiverunt, sed Marcus et Sextus cum Cornelio ___________________. (stayed)

2. Ad mediamnoctem ___________________ in animohabuerunt. (to stay awake)

3. Marcus et Sextusesuriunt et Marcus rogat, “___________________ ___________________ hic cenare?” (May we)

4. ___________________ tacebatpater. (For a short time)

5. Tandem, “___________________!” inquit. (“All right!”)

6. Riseruntpueri quod laetierant. Voluerunt ___________________ ibicenare et aliosviatoresspectare. (for)

7. Dum puericibum ___________________, subitointravit ___________________

___________________. (devour) (a certain soldier)

8. “Salve, ___________________ ___________________,” inquit. (sir)

9. “Cur vos ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ intravistis?” (into this inn)

10. “Quod raeda nostra in fossa ___________________ ___________________,” respondet Cornelius. (is stuck fast)

roman hospitality
Roman Hospitality
building the meaning principal parts
Building the MeaningPrincipal Parts
  • AMO: 1stperson singular, present tense=I love, I am loving, I do love
  • AMARE: present infinitive=to love, to be loving
  • AMAVI: 1st person singular, perfect tense=I loved, I did love, I have loved
  • AMATUS,A,UM: perfect passive participle (verbal adjective)=having been loved,


history the early republic
History: The Early Republic
  • After the monarchy:
    • LuciusJunius Brutus and LuciusTarquiniusCollatinus-First Consuls of new republic
  • Rome expanded physically through military conquests to all of Italy south of the Rubicon River
  • Political growth
    • Adaptation of the constitution
    • Not formal-set of practices and policies
the consuls and the magistrates
The Consuls and the Magistrates
  • Consuls
    • Two leaders elected to a 1 year term
    • Leaders of the civil government and generals of the Roman army
    • Assured that no one person could have unlimited power
  • Other officers named to assist consuls
    • Elected annually
    • Two or more individuals with same title and shared duties
      • Praetors: directed judicial system
      • Aediles: supervised commerce and public works
      • Tribunes: championed lower classes
      • Quaestors: handeled financial matters

As Rome increased, number of people holding offices increased

  • Censors: chosen every 5 years to revise list of Senate and carry out census to assign citizens to classes
  • Dictator: position appointed in times of emergency for a 6 month period
    • Cincinnatus
  • CursusHonorum: Political Ladder
    • Election as quaestor, appointment to Senate, praetor, consul, and censor; may become aedile after quaestor before becoming a praetor

Comitia centuriata: Centuriate assembly

    • Originated in the army
    • Passed laws, ratified treaties, issued declarations of war, elected consuls, praetors, aediles, censors, and priests of religion
    • Citizen assigned to voting block in assembly by wealth
    • Equites-made up the 18 richest of 193 centuries
    • Next richest were 80 centuries of infantry or foot soldiers
    • Bottom ranking were citizens with no land in one century
    • Each century had one vote
  • Comitia tributa: Tribal assembly
    • Outgrowth of the Council of Plebians
    • Issued plebicites which were like laws
    • Elected aedilesand tribunes who had power of veto on laws which were unjust to plebians
  • Senate
    • Advisory council of former magistrates
    • Controlled finances and foreign policy
    • Major influence
the citizen army
The Citizen Army
  • Needed to survive continual battles with neighboring states
  • plebeians-provided man power and wanted equality as citizens
  • Wealthy plebeians wanted equality with patricians
  • Forced changes
    • Organized mass strikes and refused to perform their military service
  • Leadership
    • Tribunes
  • Twelve Tables
    • Legal practices which were codified and written on bronze tablets
    • Guaranteed every Roman citizen the right to justice
  • Tribal assembly became official to pass plebiscites and elect aediles and tribunes
  • Right to hold office allowed plebians to become senators
  • Fairly representative government
    • Tribal assembly equal to laws passed by Centuriate assembly
    • New ruling class of senatorial aristocracy of patricians and wealthy plebians
the conquest of italy
The Conquest of Italy
  • First victories
    • Neighbors: Sabines, Aequi, and Volsci (mountains)
      • Etruscans (across Tiber from north)
      • Latins (south)
  • 390: Gauls invaded Italy from the north, occupied all Rome except Capitoline Hill
    • Rome led by Camillus and chased out invaders
    • Standing army then formed-legions armed with spears and short swords, arranged in units or maniples
    • Established camps with fixed plans and a growing network of roads

New opponents

    • Samnites and Greek cities in southern Italy
    • Pyrrhus, king of the Greek nation of Epirus, invited to assist fellow Greeks
      • Brought elephants to Italy, only won by losing a lot of men
      • Pyrrhic victories at Heraclea in 280 and Ausculum in 279
        • “One more victory like this, and we shall be truly ruined.”
      • Rome left master of Italy
      • Rome formed alliances with cities they won
        • Gave military allegiance and control of foreign policy
        • Offered citizenship to many neighbors
mythology atlas
Mythology: Atlas
  • Atlas was a second generation Titan. He personified the quality of endurance. His father was the Titan Iapetus and his mother was either Klymene or Asia. His children were The Pleiades, Calypso, Maera, Dione, and The Hesperides.
  • Atlas led the Titans in a rebellion against Zeus and was punished by being condemned to bear the heavens upon his shoulders. He also instructed mankind in the art of astronomy. This was used by sailors for navigation, and by farmers to measure the seasons. These functions created Atlas as the god who turns heaven on its axis and causes the stars to revolve.


Mother of Aphrodite

The Pleiades

Seven Sisters


The Odyssey

The Hesperides

Hercules Labors

atlas and hercules
Atlas and Hercules
  • During the labors of Hercules, Prometheus advised Hercules not to go after the apples himself, but rather to relieve Atlas of the celestial sphere and dispatch him. So when Hercules reached Atlas, he remembered Prometheus’ advice and took over the sphere. Atlas picked three apples from the garden of the Hesperides, then returned to Hercules. Not wanting to hold up the sphere, he told Hercules that he should carry the applies back to Eurystheus, and that Hercules could hold up the sky in his place. Hercules agreed, but by a trick gave the sphere back to Atlas. On the advice of Prometheus, he asked Atlas to take the sky while he put a cushion on his head. Hearing this, Atlas set the apples down on the ground, and relieved Hercules of the sphere. Thus Hercules picked them up and left. Some say, however, that he did not take the apples from Atlas, but killed the Drakon that guarded them, and picked them himself. Some also say that he built two great pillars at the ends of the earth to help relieve the Titan of his burden. Returning with the apples he gave them to Eurystheus who made a present of them to Hercules. But Athena retrieved them from him and took them back, for it was not permitted by diving law to locate them anywhere else.
how atlas was turned to stone
How Atlas was turned to stone…

From Ovid: “Now at dusk, fearing to trust the night, he [Perseus flying on winged sandals] landed on the far Hesperian shore, the realm of Atlas, seeking rest awhile . . . Atlas Iapetionides (son of Iapetos) surpassed all men in giant size. He ruled the world’s last lands and that far sea that greets the panting horses of the sun and welcomed their tired wheels. A thousand herds roamed on his pastures and a thousand flocks, unchecked, untroubled by a neighbour’s bounds; and there were trees whose glittering leaves of gold clothed golden apples under golden boughs. `Good friend’, Perseus addressed him, `if renown of lineage may count, I take my line from Juppiter [Zeus], my father; or if deeds can win your admiration, mine you will admire. I ask for rest and lodging.’ But the giant recalled the oracle which ThemisParnasia had given : `Atlas, a time shall come when from your tree the gold shall be despoiled, and of that spoil a son of Jove shall boast.’ In fear he had walled his orchards all around with massive ramparts and for guardian set an enormous Draco; and drove off all strangers from the borders of his realm. To Perseus too `Away! Begone!’ he cried, `Or you shall find no joy in that renown your lies invent, no joy in Juppiter [Zeus].’, and added force to threats, as Perseus tried fair words at first, then bravely grappled him. But when he found his strength surpassed (for who could match the strength of Atlas?) `Very well!’ he taunted, `If you rate my thanks so low, accept a gift!’ and turned his face away and on his left held out the loathsome head, Medusa’s head. Atlas, so huge, became a mountain; beard and hair were changed to forests, shoulders were cliffs, hands ridges; where his head had lately been, the soaring summit rose; his bones were turned to stone. Then each part grew beyond all measure (so the gods ordained) and on his shoulders rested the whole vault of heaven with all the innumerable stars."