Basketball • History • Gameplay • Basic Rules • Offense • Techniques • Defense • Court and Positions • Vocabulary
History • James Naismith is credited with inventing modern basketball in 1891. • He was a PE teacher that was tasked to create an indoor game that would provide an athletic opportunity for students during the harsh winters in the New England area. • Originally the game was played with 2 peach baskets attached to a 10 foot railing and a soccer ball.
Gameplay • 5 players on the court for each team. • 4 quarters: length of the quarter is based on age and level of play. • Games generally have 8-minute quarters. • NBA games have12-minute quarters. • College games play two 20-minute halves instead of 4 quarters. • An official basketball is 30 inches in circumference, while a women’s basketball is slightly smaller at 28.5 inches. • The rim is 10 feet off the court.
Basic Rules • A foul is an illegal action that can be committed by player from one team against a player from the opposing team. • There are two types of fouls – defensive and offensive. • Defensive fouls occur when the offensive player is fouled by the defender. Defenders may not block, push, trip, strike or hold the player in possession of the ball. • Offensive fouls occur when the offensive players charges or runs into a stationary defender. • The team that is fouled either gets possession of the ball or shoots free throws if a player is fouled in the process of shooting.
Basic Rules • A violation occurs when the player breaks one of the rules of Basketball. A violation results in awarding of the ball to the opponent. • Traveling: Taking more than 'a step and a half' without dribbling the ball is traveling. Moving your pivot foot once you've stopped dribbling is also traveling. • Carrying/palming: When a player dribbles the ball with his hand too far to the side of or, sometimes, even under the ball. • Double Dribble: Dribbling the ball with both hands on the ball at the same time or picking up the dribble and then dribbling again is a double dribble.
Offense • The team with the ball is on offense. The offensive team is trying to advance the ball by dribbling and passing. • A team can score a field goal by shooting the ball through the hoop. • A field goal scores two points for the shooting team if a player is touching or closer to the hoop than the three point line. • A three point shot (a "3 pointer") scores 3 if the player is "outside" the three-point line. • A free throw is worth one point. • Most basketball teams run set or motion type plays with “picks” and “cuts” to free a person up for an easy shot attempt. • In basketball, a pick is also commonly known as a screen. It is a maneuver by an offensive player to free up a teammate from being closely guarded by positioning themself between the teammate and the player guarding the teammate.
Techniques • Chest pass: one foot is ahead of the other, with the knees bent slightly. The ball is released at chest level, with the fingers spread on each side of the ball. The elbows remain close to the body, and the ball is released by extending the arms and snapping the wrists as one foot moves toward the receiver. Thumbs should point to the floor on the follow-through. • Bounce pass: technique is similar to the chest pass, except the ball should bounce once just over half way to the intended target. • Dribbling: is used to advance the ball, break for a basket, or maneuver around the defense. The fingertips propel the ball with the hand cupped and relaxed. To be effective, the dribbling hand should be alternatedas needed.
Techniques • Shooting: the ball is held at the shoulder-eye level with the supporting hand positioned on the side of the ball and the shooting hand slightly below center and behind the ball. As the shot begins, the supporting (non-shooting) hand remains in contact as long as possible. The shooting hand then takes over with fingertip control, and the ball rolls off the center three fingers. The hand and wrist follow through, finishing in a flexed position. The elbow of the shooting hand should remain close to the body. Vision is focused on the hoop during the shot. Proper technique should be emphasized rather than accuracy.
Defense • The team without the ball is on defense. • There are many different types of strategies to try and stop the opposing offensive team from scoring. • The two most common types of defense are a “zone” defense and a “man to man” defense. • A “zone” defense consists of each member of the defensive team guarding a specified portion of the playing area. • In “man to man” defense, each member of the defensive team is designated to guard a particular member of the offensive team.
Vocabulary • Travel • Double dribble • Foul • Turnover • Pick • Rebound • Pass • Dribble • Guard • Forward • Center • Offense • Defense • Pivot • Zone defense • Man to man defense