ABC4EU Automated Border Control Gates for Europe. Workshop on "European Secure and Safe Smart Cities 2020" . Lasse Kivinen. Helsinki. 16.6.2014. AGENDA. Basic Information about project Basic Information about Border Checks and ABC-systems Objectives of EU border Security
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Workshop on "European Secure and Safe Smart Cities 2020"
Enhancing the workflow and functionalities of Automated Border Control (ABC) gates.Project Acronym: ABC4EUResearch for Next Generation Automated Border Control System(http://abc4eu.com/)
This project has received funding from the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement n:o 312 797.
FP7 is the short name for the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development.
THE CONSORTIUM Union’s
1. Indra Sistema S.A. (Spain); Project Coordinator
2. Price Waterhouse Cooper’s (Spain)
3. Eticas Research and Consulting SL (Spain)
4. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain)
5. Ministerio Del Interior (Spain)
6. Ministerio Da Administracao Interna (Portugal)
10. Cognitec Systems GMBH (Germany)
11. Safe ID Solutions GMBH (Germany)
12. Laurea University of Applied Sciences (Finland)
13. Centre for Irish and European Security Limited (Ireland)
14. Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet (Estonia)
15. Ministerual Afaceriol Interne (Romania)
The use of automated or semi-automated systems which can verify the identity of travellers at border crossing points (BCPs), without the need for human intervention.
In general, an ABC system consists of one or two physical barriers (e-Gates), document readers, a monitor displaying instructions, a biometric capture device, and system management hardware and software.
Currently, the ABC systems based on the use of an electronic travel document which have been deployed in the Member States (MSs) rely on facial recognition as the basis for biometric verification, with the exception of Spain which has introduced the fingerprints alongside facial recognition.
An automated system which:
- authenticates the e- MRTD,
- establishes that the passenger is the rightful holder of the document,
- queries border control records
- automatically determines eligibility for border crossing according to predefined rules.
External Borders Union’s
Schengen-& Associated Countries 2011 (Home Affairs 2011b)
28 EU Member States
4 Schengen Associated Countries
13 900 km External Land Border
70 000 km External Maritime Border
Ca. 1800 BCPs/ 250 Airports as BCPs
Passenger Flows across External Borders 675 million/Year
230 mill - land
81 mill - sea
364 mill - airports
The number of persons crossing the borders is expected to increase substantially in the future especially at the air borders.
Eurocontrol expects an increase of 400 in 2009 to 720 million in 2030 border crossings through air borders. This means that at the European airports must facilitate 720 million travellers in 2030.
This rapid increase cannot be addressed with hiring additional border guards,
especially it’s financially
EU Union’s goals
Facilitating access to Europe in a globalised world constitutes one of the strategic goals of the European Union for the further development of the area of freedom, security and justice.
The aim is to continue easing access to the Union’s territory for those having a legitimate interest, while at the same guaranteeing high level of security for EU citizens.
The EU and the Russian Federation are negotiating the possibility of a visa free regime in the future. For this purpose the "Common steps towards visa free short-term travel of Russian and EU citizens ” were agreed at the EU-Russia Summit in December 2011.
There is no target date or automaticity for the visa free-regime to begin, but an open-ended dialogue, guided by senior officials from both EU and Russia to review progress on the "Common Steps" and examine how the long-term aim of visa free travel can be achieved in practice.
(The EU has suspended talks on investment and visa-free travel with Russia in response to the crisis in Ukraine, 6.3.2014, Euronews).
Growing travel flows and change of travel patterns are placing the traditionalmodel of bordercontrolunder pressure.
All persons shall undergo a minimum check when crossing external borders in order to establish their identities on the basis of the production or presentation of their travel documents.
Such a minimum check shall consist of a rapid and straightforward verification,
(where appropriate by using technical devices and by consulting, in the relevant databases, information exclusively on stolen, misappropriated, lost and invalidated documents, of the validity of the document authorising the legitimate holder to cross the border and of the presence of signs of falsification or counterfeiting.)
When crossing an external border, European Union (EU) citizens and other persons enjoying the right of free movement within the EU (such as the family members of an EU citizen) undergo a minimum check.
This minimum check is carried out to establish their identity on the basis of their travel documents and consists of a rapid and straightforward verification of the validity of the documents and a check for signs of falsification or counterfeiting
Non-EU country nationals are subject to thorough checks:
- verification of the conditions governing entry, including verification in the Visa Information System (VIS)
- if applicable, of documents authorising residence and the pursuit of a professional activity.
The travel documents of non-EU
country nationals are systematically
stamped upon entry and exit.
The primary objective of ABC systems MUST be to reconcile facilitation and security. In other words, facilitation is the main objective to maximize, and security a boundary condition that has to be met.
Automated border control is currently targeted to EU, EEA and Swiss citizens (EU/EEA/CH) who according to the Schengen Borders Code are subject to a “minimum check”.
The “thorough check” carried out on TCN may set more requirements to the ABC systems as regards the process, but the main objective remains the same.
The Schengen Borders Code (SBC), the EU Visa Code, and national legislation set the framework for the various measures which are implemented at the BCPs of the Schengen area.
Yet, the detailed operational model followed at each BCP is designed to target the specific situational requirements, which often leads to differences among the various implementations.
Many ABC Gates have been deployed at the main European airports in last few years.
Experience gained from these pilots has been periodically assessed within the Frontex ABC Workshops, where the need for harmonized approach has been specifically pointed out as one of the most urgent issues to be solved.
The harmonization would be required in areas as e-passports management, biometrics, gate design, human interface, processes, PKD certificate exchange, signalling and interoperability.
1. State-of-the-art technologies (e.g. ABC-solutions) can support more effective border management.
Citizens need to confident that their biometric data is being handled properly and their rights to data protection and privacy are fully respected.
3. Harmonization and standardisation are a challenge. The rapid ABC- expansion throughout the world has taken place in a disconnected manner.
This poses a problem for travellers. How can they familiarize with ABC-systems when national implementations differ?
Greater harmonization and standardisation should help to achieve a better traveler experiece and encourage more people to use ABC.
4. Well trained border staff is still the key. ABC is not about replacing personnel, but rather to give them aids to do their work better.
The ABC4EU-project will focus in the need for harmonization in the design and operational features of ABC Gates. Special consideration put on the full exploitation of the EU second generation passports and other accepted travel documents. In addition, support subsystems will be specifically tested in the project to assess their feasibility.
First generation e-Passports contain the facial image of the holder; second generation (obligatory in the EU since June 2009) contain also two fingerprints in addition to the facial image. (Frontex Research and Development Unit Best Practice Operational Guidelines for Automated Border Control (ABC) Systems, 2012)
EU Smart Border Initiative proposes a new approach in ABC development inclusion of a real-time system for Third Country Nationals and an Entry/Exit System (EES).
The ABC4EU-project will identify the requirements for an integrated, interoperable respecting rights of citizens at EU level.
The aim is to protect the security of borders, whilst ensuring that Europe remains accessible to frequent travellers by using modern technologies in border management.
EES and RTP in operation 2018/2019 (?)
Applicable at all Schengen borders
Electronic registry of the dates and place of entry and exit of third-country nationals admitted for short stays
Permits accurate and reliable calculation of authorised stays as well as identification and verification of travellers.
Faster border crossings for pre-screened and pre-vetted third country travellers
Same vetting and pre-screening as for multiple-entry visa holders
Alphanumeric and biometric (fingerprints) data used at the e-gates Token (bar code) shall be presented; hit, no hit result.
People travel and migrate. International movement is on the rise and so are the numbers of border crossings each year.
Border crossings should be made as smooth and rapid as possible for the everyday traveler, while, at the same time also addressing the issues of crime prevention and immigration control.
In regard the overall economic situation in Europe, the number of officials involved in border control cannot be increased at the same rate as the increasing passenger flows.
The aim of the ABC4EU (Automated Border Control) for Europe is to make border checks more flexible for passengers by enhancing the workflow and harmonizing the functionalities of border check automation.
Many ABC gates systems have been deployed at major European airports to improve the border crossing processes in aspects such as speed, security, process automation, false rejection reduction, etc.
Fully operational deployments facilitate the border crossing process of bona-fide travelers while maintaining security at the border.
Experiences from these deployments have been periodically assessed at Frontex ABC Workshops, where a need for harmonized approaches has been specifically addressed as a most urgent issue.
In particular areas such as e-passports management, biometrics, gate design, human interface, processes, signaling and interoperability will require harmonization.
The main objective of the ABC4EU project is to update and integrate current ABC systems, active in several member States, and to extend their use to second generation passports and citizens of third countries. The ABC4EU project will upgrade and test ABC systems. Pilots will be deployed in Spain, Portugal and United Kingdom (at airports, harbors and land borders).
Also RTP and EES concepts, and other relevant technology, will be developed and tested to assess their feasibility.
All development done in the project will be in conjunction with the end-user community.
ABC4EU intends to carry out a 2 steps system validation:
2. Lessons learnt from this first step will be applied for a second and final testing before month 36.
WP1 Legal, Social and Ethical aspects (leader ETICAS)
WP2 Technology Assessment and End User Requirements definition (leader ISDEFE)
WP3 ABC Processes & Workflow Design (leader VisionBox)
WP4 EU ABC Architecture (leader Indra)
WP5 Subsystem Development and Integration (leader Indra)
WP6 BCP Test & Validation (leader ISDEFE)
WP7 Dissemination and Exploitation (leader Laurea)
WP8 Technical and Scientific Coordination (leader Indra)
WP9 Administrative and Financial Coordination (leader Indra)
Work Union’s package 3 (WP3), is driven by the need of harmonization of ABC systems, in this work package the travellers flows will be studied in order to optimize them and the harmonisation of the ABC gates will be defined, in terms of functionality, human interface with the system users, signalling, current biometrics (fingerprint and face recognition) evaluation/optimization and interoperability of the ABC gates with
Work package 4 (WP4), the architecture of the different subsystems will be defined. The architecture will be designed according to the functional, technical and legal requirements (in compliance to ethical and social issues).Summary of work packages 1/2
Work package (WP1) will be devoted to the study of legal, social and privacy issues related to border controls within the European Union. This work package will act as observatory during the project execution.
Work package 2 (WP2) is devoted to properly identifying End Users needs according to the procedures in Border Control Points (BCP). All the technological developments that will be carried out in the project will be executed according to the outcomes of this work package.
In Union’s Work package 5 (WP5), the Registered Traveller Programme and Entry/Exit System prototypes. The ABC’s (airport, land, sea, mobile) will be updated, which has been conceptualized and designed within previous stages of the Project.
In Work package 6 (WP6), all the subsystems developed in WP5 will be tested and
Work package 7 (WP7), this work package will be devoted to the dissemination and
spreading of the project results, in the especially within the potential stake holders
community, although other communities will be also approached, ie. Scientific and industry.Summary of work packages 2/2
Work package 8 (WP8) deals with technical management issues and it covers the whole duration of the project.
Work package 9 (WP9) deal with administrative and financial management issues and it covers the whole duration of the project.
Secure Social Media Platform Union’s
European Border Guard Publications
End User Integration Group Union’s
End User Integration Group
End User Integration Group
End User Integration Group
End User Community
On-line secure dissemination tools
Secure social media platform
Comprehensive dissemination of research results in border guard publications, scientific and technical magazines and journals and other media, and also the EU Commission’s magazines