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ABC4EU Automated Border Control Gates for Europe. Workshop on "European Secure and Safe Smart Cities 2020" . Lasse Kivinen. Helsinki. 16.6.2014. AGENDA. Basic Information about project Basic Information about Border Checks and ABC-systems Objectives of EU border Security

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Abc4eu automated border control gates for europe

ABC4EUAutomated Border Control Gates for Europe

Workshop on "European Secure and Safe Smart Cities 2020"

Lasse Kivinen




  • Basic Informationaboutproject

  • Basic Informationabout Border Checks and ABC-systems

  • Objectives of EU border Security

  • The Border Control challenge

  • Objetives of ABC4EU project

  • Smart Border Initiative

  • (Detailedprojectstructure)


Enhancing the workflow and functionalities of Automated Border Control (ABC) gates.Project Acronym: ABC4EUResearch for Next Generation Automated Border Control System(

This project has received funding from the European Union’s 7th Framework Programme for research, technological development and demonstration under grant agreement n:o 312 797.

FP7 is the short name for the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development.

Automated border control gates for europe
Automated Border Control Gates for Europe Union’s

  • ABC4EU is an EU wide project and involves a Consortium of 15 partners from 8 different countries, with a budget of 16,8 Million Euros, 70% EU funding.

  • The project started in January 2014 and will last for 3,5 years.


Consortium Union’s

1. Indra Sistema S.A. (Spain); Project Coordinator

2. Price Waterhouse Cooper’s (Spain)

3. Eticas Research and Consulting SL (Spain)

4. Universidad Rey Juan Carlos (Spain)

5. Ministerio Del Interior (Spain)

6. Ministerio Da Administracao Interna (Portugal)

  • Vision Box SA (Portugal)

  • Universita’ Degli Studi Di Milano (UMIL) (Italy)

Consortium Union’s

  • Dermalog Identification systems GMBH (Germany)

    10. Cognitec Systems GMBH (Germany)

    11. Safe ID Solutions GMBH (Germany)

    12. Laurea University of Applied Sciences (Finland)

    13. Centre for Irish and European Security Limited (Ireland)

    14. Politsei- ja Piirivalveamet (Estonia)

    15. Ministerual Afaceriol Interne (Romania)

Automated border control abc gates
Automated Border Control (ABC Union’s ) (gates)

The use of automated or semi-automated systems which can verify the identity of travellers at border crossing points (BCPs), without the need for human intervention.

In general, an ABC system consists of one or two physical barriers (e-Gates), document readers, a monitor displaying instructions, a biometric capture device, and system management hardware and software.

Automated border control
Automated Border Control Union’s

Currently, the ABC systems based on the use of an electronic travel document which have been deployed in the Member States (MSs) rely on facial recognition as the basis for biometric verification, with the exception of Spain which has introduced the fingerprints alongside facial recognition.

Automated border control abc system
Automated Border Control (ABC)- Union’s system

An automated system which:

- authenticates the e- MRTD,

- establishes that the passenger is the rightful holder of the document,

- queries border control records

- automatically determines eligibility for border crossing according to predefined rules.

  • ( Union’s Frontex Research and Development Unit Best Practice Operational Guidelines for Automated Border Control (ABC) Systems, 2012)

External Borders Union’s

Schengen-& Associated Countries 2011 (Home Affairs 2011b)

Eu borders basic facts schengen area
EU Borders Basic Facts (Schengen Area) Union’s

28 EU Member States

4 Schengen Associated Countries

13 900 km External Land Border

70 000 km External Maritime Border

Ca. 1800 BCPs/ 250 Airports as BCPs

Passenger Flows across External Borders 675 million/Year

230 mill - land

81 mill - sea

364 mill - airports

Background Union’s

The number of persons crossing the borders is expected to increase substantially in the future especially at the air borders.

Eurocontrol expects an increase of 400 in 2009 to 720 million in 2030 border crossings through air borders. This means that at the European airports must facilitate 720 million travellers in 2030.

This rapid increase cannot be addressed with hiring additional border guards,

especially it’s financially

not sustainable

EU Union’s goals

Facilitating access to Europe in a globalised world constitutes one of the strategic goals of the European Union for the further development of the area of freedom, security and justice.

The aim is to continue easing access to the Union’s territory for those having a legitimate interest, while at the same guaranteeing high level of security for EU citizens.

Visa dialogue russia eu
Visa Union’s Dialogue Russia - EU

The EU and the Russian Federation are negotiating the possibility of a visa free regime in the future. For this purpose the "Common steps towards visa free short-term travel of Russian and EU citizens ” were agreed at the EU-Russia Summit in December 2011.

There is no target date or automaticity for the visa free-regime to begin, but an open-ended dialogue, guided by senior officials from both EU and Russia to review progress on the "Common Steps" and examine how the long-term aim of visa free travel can be achieved in practice. 

(The EU has suspended talks on investment and visa-free travel with Russia in response to the crisis in Ukraine, 6.3.2014, Euronews).

Objectives of eu border security
Objectives Union’s of EU border security

Challenges Union’s

  • E.g. Overall document fraud reported increased by 18% between 2012 and 2013.

The border control challenge
The border control Union’s challenge

Growing travel flows and change of travel patterns are placing the traditionalmodel of bordercontrolunder pressure.


  • The vast majority of travellers should pass border control smoothly

  • Borders shall prevent unauthorised entry

  • Hiring additional staff is not a realistic option.

Target groups
Target Union’s groups

  • EU- citizensshould useABC-systemsmore

  • Third Country Nationalities (TCN) should be able to useABC-systems in the future.

Border checks on persons
Border checks on persons Union’s

All persons shall undergo a minimum check when crossing external borders in order to establish their identities on the basis of the production or presentation of their travel documents.

Such a minimum check shall consist of a rapid and straightforward verification,

(where appropriate by using technical devices and by consulting, in the relevant databases, information exclusively on stolen, misappropriated, lost and invalidated documents, of the validity of the document authorising the legitimate holder to cross the border and of the presence of signs of falsification or counterfeiting.)

External borders minimun check
External Borders – Union’s minimuncheck

When crossing an external border, European Union (EU) citizens and other persons enjoying the right of free movement within the EU (such as the family members of an EU citizen) undergo a minimum check.

This minimum check is carried out to establish their identity on the basis of their travel documents and consists of a rapid and straightforward verification of the validity of the documents and a check for signs of falsification or counterfeiting

External borders thorough check
External Borders – Union’s thoroughcheck

Non-EU country nationals are subject to thorough checks:

- verification of the conditions governing entry, including verification in the Visa Information System (VIS)

- if applicable, of documents authorising residence and the pursuit of a professional activity.

  • a non-EU country national must e.g. possess a valid travel document, possess a valid visa, if required.

    The travel documents of non-EU

    country nationals are systematically

    stamped upon entry and exit.

Objective of abc systems
Objective Union’s of ABC - systems

The primary objective of ABC systems MUST be to reconcile facilitation and security. In other words, facilitation is the main objective to maximize, and security a boundary condition that has to be met.

Automated border control is currently targeted to EU, EEA and Swiss citizens (EU/EEA/CH) who according to the Schengen Borders Code are subject to a “minimum check”.

The “thorough check” carried out on TCN may set more requirements to the ABC systems as regards the process, but the main objective remains the same.

Need for harmonization and standardisation
Need Union’s for Harmonization and standardisation

The Schengen Borders Code (SBC), the EU Visa Code, and national legislation set the framework for the various measures which are implemented at the BCPs of the Schengen area.

Yet, the detailed operational model followed at each BCP is designed to target the specific situational requirements, which often leads to differences among the various implementations.

Need for harmonization and standardisation1
Need Union’s for Harmonization and standardisation

Many ABC Gates have been deployed at the main European airports in last few years.

Experience gained from these pilots has been periodically assessed within the Frontex ABC Workshops, where the need for harmonized approach has been specifically pointed out as one of the most urgent issues to be solved.

The harmonization would be required in areas as e-passports management, biometrics, gate design, human interface, processes, PKD certificate exchange, signalling and interoperability.

Automated border control solutions
Automated Border Control- solutions Union’s

1. State-of-the-art technologies (e.g. ABC-solutions) can support more effective border management.

  • Social acceptance and trust are key factors are for the successful deployment of biometric solutions, including ABC- technologies.

    Citizens need to confident that their biometric data is being handled properly and their rights to data protection and privacy are fully respected.

Automated border control solutions1
Automated Border Control- solutions Union’s

3. Harmonization and standardisation are a challenge. The rapid ABC- expansion throughout the world has taken place in a disconnected manner.

This poses a problem for travellers. How can they familiarize with ABC-systems when national implementations differ?

Greater harmonization and standardisation should help to achieve a better traveler experiece and encourage more people to use ABC.

4. Well trained border staff is still the key. ABC is not about replacing personnel, but rather to give them aids to do their work better.

Abc4eu objectives
ABC4EU- Union’s objectives

The ABC4EU-project will focus in the need for harmonization in the design and operational features of ABC Gates. Special consideration put on the full exploitation of the EU second generation passports and other accepted travel documents. In addition, support subsystems will be specifically tested in the project to assess their feasibility.

First generation e-Passports contain the facial image of the holder; second generation (obligatory in the EU since June 2009) contain also two fingerprints in addition to the facial image. (Frontex Research and Development Unit Best Practice Operational Guidelines for Automated Border Control (ABC) Systems, 2012)

Eu smart border initiative
EU Smart Border Union’s Initiative

EU Smart Border Initiative proposes a new approach in ABC development inclusion of a real-time system for Third Country Nationals and an Entry/Exit System (EES).

The ABC4EU-project will identify the requirements for an integrated, interoperable respecting rights of citizens at EU level.

Eu smart border initiative1
EU Smart Border Initiative Union’s

The aim is to protect the security of borders, whilst ensuring that Europe remains accessible to frequent travellers by using modern technologies in border management.

  • The ENTRY/EXIT SYSTEM (EES) would generate information that would help identify and apprehend irregular immigrants (especially overstayers), thereby deterring irregular immigration.

  • The Registered Traveller Program (RTP) would facilitate the crossing of EU external borders for frequent, pre-screened and pre-vetted third country travellers, while ensuring overall coherence of EU border policy.

    EES and RTP in operation 2018/2019 (?)

Entry exit system ees
Entry/Exit System (EES) Union’s

Applicable at all Schengen borders

Electronic registry of the dates and place of entry and exit of third-country nationals admitted for short stays

Permits accurate and reliable calculation of authorised stays as well as identification and verification of travellers.

Registered traveller programme rtp
Registered Traveller Programme (RTP) Union’s

Faster border crossings for pre-screened and pre-vetted third country travellers

Same vetting and pre-screening as for multiple-entry visa holders

Alphanumeric and biometric (fingerprints) data used at the e-gates Token (bar code) shall be presented; hit, no hit result.

Fee based

Abc4eu abstract 1 3
ABC4EU – Abstract 1/3 Union’s

People travel and migrate. International movement is on the rise and so are the numbers of border crossings each year.

Border crossings should be made as smooth and rapid as possible for the everyday traveler, while, at the same time also addressing the issues of crime prevention and immigration control.

In regard the overall economic situation in Europe, the number of officials involved in border control cannot be increased at the same rate as the increasing passenger flows.

Abc4eu abstract 2 3
ABC4EU- Abstract 2/3 Union’s

The aim of the ABC4EU (Automated Border Control) for Europe is to make border checks more flexible for passengers by enhancing the workflow and harmonizing the functionalities of border check automation.

Many ABC gates systems have been deployed at major European airports to improve the border crossing processes in aspects such as speed, security, process automation, false rejection reduction, etc.

Fully operational deployments facilitate the border crossing process of bona-fide travelers while maintaining security at the border.

Abc4eu abstract 3 3
ABC4EU- Abstract 3/3 Union’s

Experiences from these deployments have been periodically assessed at Frontex ABC Workshops, where a need for harmonized approaches has been specifically addressed as a most urgent issue.

In particular areas such as e-passports management, biometrics, gate design, human interface, processes, signaling and interoperability will require harmonization.

Abc4eu expected results
ABC4EU- Expected results Union’s

The main objective of the ABC4EU project is to update and integrate current ABC systems, active in several member States, and to extend their use to second generation passports and citizens of third countries. The ABC4EU project will upgrade and test ABC systems. Pilots will be deployed in Spain, Portugal and United Kingdom (at airports, harbors and land borders).

Also RTP and EES concepts, and other relevant technology, will be developed and tested to assess their feasibility.

All development done in the project will be in conjunction with the end-user community.

Abc4eu system validiation
ABC4EU System validiation Union’s

ABC4EU intends to carry out a 2 steps system validation:

  • Upgraded ABC systems in several covering all types of borders (airports, harbours and land borders) will be integrated with RTP and EES prototypes before month 24.

    2. Lessons learnt from this first step will be applied for a second and final testing before month 36.

List of work p ackages wp
List of Union’s Work Packages (WP)

WP1 Legal, Social and Ethical aspects (leader ETICAS)

WP2 Technology Assessment and End User Requirements definition (leader ISDEFE)

WP3 ABC Processes & Workflow Design (leader VisionBox)

WP4 EU ABC Architecture (leader Indra)

WP5 Subsystem Development and Integration (leader Indra)

WP6 BCP Test & Validation (leader ISDEFE)

WP7 Dissemination and Exploitation (leader Laurea)

WP8 Technical and Scientific Coordination (leader Indra)

WP9 Administrative and Financial Coordination (leader Indra)

Summary of work packages 1 2

Work Union’s package 3 (WP3), is driven by the need of harmonization of ABC systems, in this work package the travellers flows will be studied in order to optimize them and the harmonisation of the ABC gates will be defined, in terms of functionality, human interface with the system users, signalling, current biometrics (fingerprint and face recognition) evaluation/optimization and interoperability of the ABC gates with

external systems.

Work package 4 (WP4), the architecture of the different subsystems will be defined. The architecture will be designed according to the functional, technical and legal requirements (in compliance to ethical and social issues).

Summary of work packages 1/2

Work package (WP1) will be devoted to the study of legal, social and privacy issues related to border controls within the European Union. This work package will act as observatory during the project execution.

Work package 2 (WP2) is devoted to properly identifying End Users needs according to the procedures in Border Control Points (BCP). All the technological developments that will be carried out in the project will be executed according to the outcomes of this work package.

Summary of work packages 2 2

In Union’s Work package 5 (WP5), the Registered Traveller Programme and Entry/Exit System prototypes. The ABC’s (airport, land, sea, mobile) will be updated, which has been conceptualized and designed within previous stages of the Project.

In Work package 6 (WP6), all the subsystems developed in WP5 will be tested and


Work package 7 (WP7), this work package will be devoted to the dissemination and

spreading of the project results, in the especially within the potential stake holders

community, although other communities will be also approached, ie. Scientific and industry.

Summary of work packages 2/2

Work package 8 (WP8) deals with technical management issues and it covers the whole duration of the project.

Work package 9 (WP9) deal with administrative and financial management issues and it covers the whole duration of the project.

Secure Social Media Platform Union’s








User Community





































European Border Guard Publications

End User Integration Group Union’s

End User Integration Group

End User Integration Group

End User Integration Group

Final conference

End User Community

Periodic newsletter

Periodic newsletter

Periodic newsletter

Periodic newsletter

IPR workshop

Project website

On-line secure dissemination tools

Secure social media platform

Comprehensive dissemination of research results in border guard publications, scientific and technical magazines and journals and other media, and also the EU Commission’s magazines