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Welcome to PSY 105. Be sure to check my webpage for additional information regarding exams, and experimental credit requirements. Do churches cause crime?. Any explanation to support (explain) the above hypothesis? Data to support it?

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welcome to psy 105

Welcome to PSY 105

Be sure to check my webpage for additional information regarding exams, and experimental credit requirements.

do churches cause crime
Do churches cause crime?
  • Any explanation to support (explain) the above hypothesis?
  • Data to support it?
    • Record changes within one city over time: As the number of churches increase, so too does crime.
    • Collect data from different cities: Cities with more churches also have more crime.
  • This demonstrates that churches and crime are related, but why not causally?
  • Must manipulate variables of interest to conclude cause.
  • Confound?
  • Population!
does smoking cause cancer in humans
Does smoking cause cancer in humans?
  • Survey data linking smoking to cancer
  • Longitudinal data showing that early smoking associated with later cancer
  • Experiments with rats
terminology for research
Terminology for Research
  • Case studies/ Introspection (detailed info)
  • Naturalistic Observation (unobtrusive)
  • Survey research (large samples, easy)
  • Longitudinal research (changes, not lab based)
  • Experimental research (causality)
    • DV – dependent variables
    • IV – independent variables
  • Each type of research correspond to a level of understanding
    • description, explanation, prediction, and control
error in all types of measurement
Error in all types of measurement
  • Measure twice, cut once (still not perfect, but flaws may not be detectable)
    • e.g., Self-esteem, depression, IQ, extraversion, etc.
  • Standard error of measure (influenced by…?)
  • Error limits reliability (e.g., test retest)
  • Reliability limits validity (e.g., criterion)
scales of measurement
Scales of Measurement
  • Nominal - categories
  • Ordinal – ordered categories
  • Interval – ordered categories with equal intervals
  • Ratio – ordered categories, equal intervals and a

true zero

  • Examples for each?
gpa a closer look
GPA – a closer look.
  • Rounded to the second decimal (e.g., 3.24).
  • How is this figure computed?
  • What type of information do you have?
    • Ordinal to Ratio?
error in all types of measurement 2
Error in all types of measurement -2
  • Use appropriate measures of central tendency
    • mode, median, mean
tools for statistical inference
Tools for statistical inference
  • Reliability (e.g., test retest and inter-rater)
  • Validity (e.g., construct, predictive)
  • Use samples to estimate population values
  • Use sample means and SD to estimate population mean and variance
tools for statistical inference1
Tools for statistical inference
  • Larger, representative samples provide better estimates of population values
    • What is the best way to get a representative sample?
  • T-tests/ANOVA – differences between groups
  • Correlations range from -1.0 to +1.0. (see graphs)
understanding statistics through sports
Understanding statistics through sports
  • Home field advantage in the playoffs: Fact or fiction?
    • What is an important confound?
  • The “hot hand phenomenon” in top athletes
    • Research by Gilovich (1986) on college and professional basketball players (note: minimal variability)
  • “The batter is due”: The true meaning of averages.
    • Probability theory
understanding statistics through sports1
Understanding statistics through sports
  • The Sports Illustrated Cover Jinx: Regression to the mean
  • Bating average for daylight games played on grass is .354, the rest of the time it’s .260!
    • Random variability with smaller samples vs. coherent theory (e.g., see the ball better in the day; grass is easier on the knees, etc. Why doesn’t everyone do better in the day & on grass?)
the stat corner
The stat corner!
  • Playing more holes allows one to minimize the effects of chance (i.e., it is more likely that actual ability rather than other factors such as luck will determine the outcome)
    • Note: In sporting events with best of seven formats, there are fewer upsets than 1 game playoffs.
  • The same is true for experiments. The more subjects you have, the more times you replicate findings, the less likely the findings are due to chance.
gender differences 3 perspectives
Gender Differences: 3 perspectives
  • 1. Social psychological factors
    • Media pressure
      • Rating violent vs. non-violent films later affected likelihood of retaliation to a perceived offense (Zillman & Weaver, 1999)
      • Listening to songs with violent themes increases aggression (Johnson et al., 2000)
      • film “Killing us softly 3”
    • Research by Geis and colleagues (1986) on role reversed commercials
    • School teachers (Sadker & Sadker, 1986)
  • 2. Evolution (sociobiological theory; Buss)
    • within species (e.g., evolution of adaptive beh. in deer)
  • 3. Anatomical factors (e.g., Freud)
who s more jealous
Who’s more jealous?
  • Consider how males and females differ in their attitudes & behaviors as they are expressed in relationships
  • “Would you experience more distress over sexual infidelity or emotional infidelity?” (Buss et al., 1999)
    • Imagine partner falling in love with someone else vs. Imagine partner trying different sexual positions with someone else.
  • 83% of females more jealous of emotional infidelity vs. 40% of males
  • males show greater physiological arousal to imagined sex of partner with someone else
  • Why are males more jealous about sexual infidelity and females more jealous of emotional infidelity?
sociobiological theory
Sociobiological theory
  • Evolutionary pressures differ by gender
  • Females have high investment in children and a relatively short reproductive period so they should be more selective (what traits should they seek?)
    • Want to obtain access to resources for off-spring so important to ensure paternal certainty (monogamy)
  • Males have relatively short temporal investment and lengthy reproductive period so no need to be selective (what traits should they seek?)
    • The “Coolidge Effect” – refers to the increased sexual potency of males when novel females are introduced
buss research
Buss’ Research
  • Over 10,000 individuals from 33 countries
  • Among the top traits for both men and women in short term relationships was promiscuity (sexual availability)
  • For long term relationships the top trait for both groups is physical attractiveness
    • What might “physical attractiveness” represent in addition to beauty?
    • Health = reproductive potential
  • For females, earning potential was consistently rated high (noteworthy, given the population sampled)
  • Other theories for why males and females differ…
oedipus electra complexes
Oedipus & electra complexes
  • Males desire mommy and compete with daddy
    • Castration anxiety leads to identification with father to get someone like mommy
  • Females also desire mommy until they realize that she does not have a penis
    • Experience penis envy and seek to obtain a penis
    • How?
    • Never fully satisfied so the personality is never fully developed
  • All conflict is completely submerged in the unconscious, so there is no direct knowledge of these thought processes.
  • Does the unconscious exist? Can it affect us?
    • Subliminal info (detected less than 50% of the time)
subliminal psychodynamic activation spa
Subliminal psychodynamic activation (SPA)
  • A series of studies have been conducted that attempt to unconsciously stimulate classic oedipal desires and observe its effects
  • “Mommy and I are one”
    • This phrase is flashed for a very brief period using a tachistoscope.
    • Receiving unconscious statements that satisfy the classic oedipal wish has decreased psychotic behavior in schizophrenic patients, increased eating in anorectic patients, and increased well-being in college students (e.g., see Silverman and colleagues, 1978).
    • This effect does not occur if the phrase is presented above the subliminal threshold.
social influence
Social Influence
  • What factors might affect whether and to what extent the actions of others affect you?
  • Asch’s (1955) line conformity experiment
social pressure asch 1955
Social Pressure: Asch, 1955
  • Matching one’s behavior to that of others is referred to as conformity (about 75% conformed at least 1/3rd of the time to incorrect answers
  • Factors effecting conformity include;
    • group size (3-4),
    • group cohesiveness,
    • gender (females more so, though this was related to the topic),
    • social status of other group members,
    • culture (individualistic vs. collectivistic)
    • appearance of unanimity.
  • Will such influence affect more important behaviors?
    • e.g., Do you wash your hands after going to the bathroom? Females: 16% when alone, 90% with others
more social pressure
More social pressure
  • Would you kill someone just because you are told to do so?
  • College students at Yale University were tested to see the extent to which they would comply with the orders of others (Milgram, 1974)
  • Two participants at the time (randomly assigned to “teacher” & “learner”)
  • Electric shocks used to facilitate learning (15v increments for incorrect or no response)

Labels used in the study:

15v 30v 45v 60v 75v 90v 105v up to 450v

15v – slight shock

300v – Danger: Severe shock

450v - XXX

factors affecting obedience
Factors affecting obedience
  • Summary of findings
    • Most (2/3) individuals obeyed the experimenter and administered the highest level of shock
    • No differences when using female subjects

Several factors could affect obedience including;

      • distance from experimenter,
      • victim is depersonalized (distance or info),
      • experimenter is an authority figure or is supported by an institution,
      • subject is not actually the one delivering the shock (93% compliance),
      • the lack of role models for defiance
conclusions on milgram
Conclusions on Milgram
  • Why did so many (65%) obey?
  • What would happen in a more real life setting?
    • 90% of nurses followed orders delivered by phone from an unknown doctor to administer a medication in a dosage that was more than double the maximum dose.
  • Why was this unethical?
sheep or wolves
Sheep or Wolves?
  • We follow the actions of others?
  • We do what we’re told?
  • We take advantage of others?
  • We don’t care about others?
    • Kitty Genovese in Queens, NY (1964)
    • Bystander apathy/diffusion of responsibility
      • Latane & Darley, 1969
social effects
Social effects
  • Social facilitation (Triplett, 1898)
    • Study of cyclists who work harder with others
  • Social inhibition (choking)
  • Dominant response theory (Zajonc)
    • The presence of others produces arousal and this leads to the most well learned response
    • Typically that means facilitation for easy tasks and inhibition for difficult tasks
    • -cockroaches too!
more social effects
More social effects
  • Social loafing (Latene et al., 1979)
    • Consequences of not recording individual contributions?
  • Group Polarization (Janis, 1972)
    • When exposed only to others with similar beliefs
    • Group think as a model for poor decision making
justification of behavior
Justification of Behavior
  • We always strive to achieve cognitive consistency (avoid cognitive dissonance)
  • Festinger’s research illustrates this with regard to payment for services
    • Would you feel like you enjoyed a task more if you were paid $1/hour or $20/hour? Why?
  • Lerner’s Just World Phenomenon also illustrates how the end result can be used to label (justify) events.
factors that predict liking
Factors that predict liking
  • 1) Proximity – actual distance (virtual distance may be more relevant today)
    • Exposure effect – familiarity results in liking
    • Mita (1977) research on freshman photos
  • 2) Physical attractiveness – Study by Hatfield (1966) shows that we prefer attractive people as friends, also seen as more attractive, smarter, happier, etc (Dion, 1986)

- culturally determined (focus varies; neck, lips, ears)

more factors for liking
More factors for liking
  • 3) Similarity – values, appearance, SES, race, etc.
  • 4) Reciprocity – liking others is a powerful reward
physical attractiveness
Physical attractiveness
  • Height – taller is perceived as more attractive & higher status
  • Broad shoulders – also perceived as more attractive and as an indicator of dominance (another pos. feature)
  • For adults: Females prefer males who are 4-5 years older (the reverse is true for males)
  • Clothing can also indicate status
    • 3 clothing options: Blazer, plain shirt, or Burger King uniform
    • 2 levels of attractiveness: attractive or homely
    • Women prefer relationship with high status clothing even if homely
  • Facial symmetry – associated with attractiveness ratings and even scent preference for ovulating women
  • Body Symmetry for women – a height to width ratio of .7
what predicts loving
What predicts loving?
  • The four “liking” factors and arousal
    • This might be referred to as “chemistry”
    • Many different forms of arousal that we experience (exercise, fear, sexual, etc.) and all are initially the same physiologically
    • The way they are experienced differs depending on how they are labeled
    • Misattribution of arousal research
      • Dutton & Aron, 1974: males crossing a bridge
psychology and related fields
Psychology and related fields
  • Ph.D. in clinical or experimental (with or without topical emphasis)
  • Psy.D. – counseling psychology
  • Ed.D. – Educational psychology
  • MA – licensed psychological associate
  • MSW – social work degree
  • MD – with specialization in psychiatry
overview for exam 1
Overview for Exam 1
  • What phenomenon could explain the fact that someone could collapse on a busy street and not get any help from those passing by?
  • Social loafing?
  • Diffusion of responsibility?
  • Collectively referred to as the “bystander effect” (see also study of smoke filled room)
  • Questions from on-line exam?