The Canadian Navy and Expeditionary Operations. Commander Ken Hansen, Military Co-chair Maritime Studies Programme Canadian Forces College, Toronto. “Playing in the Big Leagues.”.
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The Canadian Navy and Expeditionary Operations Commander Ken Hansen, Military Co-chair Maritime Studies Programme Canadian Forces College, Toronto
“Playing in the Big Leagues.” “If we want to keep playing the national security game, we’re going to have to play in the big leagues. It won’t always be easy and it won’t always be pretty, but that’s the world we live in. The sooner we get used to it, the better.” Source: Paule Gauthier, Chair of the Security and Intelligence Review Committee, Keynote Address, “Making National Security Accountable,” Conference, Carleton University, 18 May 2005.
Expeditionary Warfare in the Littorals Images: U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings/Reel Time www2.reel-time.com
One Definition of “Transformation” "Transformation is a journey. It is not a destination. And transformation is not synonymous with modernization. It is not only done in the material dimension of the process. It involves doctrine. It involves organization. It involves training. It involves the way we develop our leaders. It involves the way we structure our installations; the way we train, equip, and raise our soldiers; and how we treat our families." Source: General Peter J. Schoomaker, Chief of Staff, U.S. Army, 11 April 2005
Naval Power Doctrine • A navy performs one or more of four functions and no others: • - At sea, it:(1) assures that our own goods and services are safe, and (2) that the enemy’s are not. • From the sea, it:(3) guarantees safe delivery of goods and services ashore, and • (4) prevents delivery ashore by an enemy navy. Source: Uhlig, How Navies Fight, 1993.
Naval Functional Roles in Expeditionary Warfare “Far from emphasizing the extreme case of amphibious assault against defended beachheads, traditional naval support roles in expeditionary warfare most commonly involve cover, administrative support, and supply operations.” Source: Milan Vego, Naval Strategy and Operations in Narrow Seas (London: Frank Cass, 2003), 269.
Responding to “Chaos in the Littorals.” “France – the most radical change in its defence structure since the mid-nineteenth century.” “Great Britain – RN and British Army being reconfigured into formations optimized for rapid deployment [for expeditionary warfare].” “Spain and France – have created a standing, self-contained, and self-transporting expeditionary formation.” Source: Schultz & Paltzgraff Jr., eds., The Role of Naval Forces in Twenty-First Century Operations (Washington, 2000), 156.
Responding to “Chaos in the Littorals.” • Netherlands • acquiring four large ‘frigates’ (7,000 tonnes) • acquiring second LHD • replacing AORs • reducing number and size of small (3,000 tonnes) ‘frigates’ • reducing force by 12,000 (military & MoD employees) • reducing submarine and minesweeper force by half • eliminating all MPAs, transferring MHAs to army • closing all naval air stations Source: Presentation to CSC32 Maritime Component Program by LCol. Jan-Leendert Voetelick, RNlAF, Defence Attache to Canada, 3 March 2005.
The New “Medium-Power Dilemma” Formerly – How to resolve the competition for resources between domestic sovereignty (simple) tasks and alliance ‘Blue Water’ (complex) tasks? Today – How to control the littorals in home waters and overseas?
Superior & Simple Ship Concepts “A Superior Ship – must obviously and generally be recognizable as such [capable of outfacing another warship or overawing a foreign port], which usually means there must be more than one.” “ A Simple Ship – must have enough speed, endurance, armament and seaworthiness to intercept merchant vessels on the high seas or to reach and enter the territorial waters of another state.” Source: James Cable, Gunboat Diplomacy, 3rd ed. (New York, 1994), 101, 103, 105.
“U.S.C.G. Superior/Simple Ship Model.” Superior Ship – “cruising cutters [first class], large (up to 2000 tons) for their type, sea kindly (habitable for long periods), economical to run, of moderate speed, exceptionally reliable, strong and easy to maintain; capable of search and rescue, towing, …salvage, a good stable platform [for] boarding parties.” Simple Ship – “offshore patrol boats [cruising cutters second class], sea kindly, economical cruisers, capable of bursts of speed, a stable platform for coast guard work, cost effective for closer, shorter [duration] tasks.” Source:Charles Koburger, Jr., Narrow Seas, Small Navies, and Fat Merchantmen (New York, 1990), 23-24.
RCN Superior/Simple Ship Precedent During a secret interview held on 6 August 1936, before the used C-class destroyers were acquired, the First Sea Lord, Admiral Sir Ernle Chatfield, advised Prime Minister King that the C-class destroyers were getting older and were not what Canada needed. Admiral Chatfield emphasized that sloops, supported by cruisers, were the ideal solution to both Canada’s local defence and trade protection roles. Source: Nicholas Tracy, The Collective Naval Defence of the Empire, (London, 1997), 536–537.
Sloops “[A] small, relatively long endurance, steam warship with, initially, sail as auxiliary propulsion, which was extensively employed on distant stations to supplement the small cruisers operated there; the smaller version of the type enjoyed the even more evocative term of “gunboat”. The second half of the 19th Century history of the Royal Navy contains innumerable examples of the employment of these vessels overseas where they provided reasonable economic examples of sea power in the colonial era.” Source: Arnold Hague, Sloops, 1926-1946, (Kendal, 1993), 9.
Superior & Simple Ship Characteristics • Long endurance • Seaworthy and seakindly • Integrated into Information Sharing Network • Air capable* • Troop capable (or OGD/NGO/TRG/DIP) • Administration capable (working deck, boats, cranes) • Intership support capable (all two-way RAS capable)
Superior Ship Characteristics • Few in number • Large, sophisticated, expensive • Overtly aggressive in appearance • Long-range (deep water) sensors and weapons • Capable of operating manned air vehicles • Few close-range defensive weapons • Indirect fire-support weapons • Capable of moderate speed
Simple Ship Characteristics • Many in number • Small, limited sophistication, inexpensive, robust • Covertly aggressive in appearance • Short-range (shallow water) sensors and weapons • Capable of operating remotely piloted vehicles of several types • Many short-range weapons with devastating firepower • Direct fire-support weapons • Capable of somewhat higher speed, reliable
The Tough News • Counter Insurgency Warfare requires large numbers (of ships and people) • Precision [naval] artillery is the [naval] equivalent of precision-guided air weapons • The navy is a [essential] support service • Expeditionary warfare duties are most often boring but are occasionally deadly – historically, most engagements fought have been within sight of land.
HMS TYNE (P281) a River-class patrol vessel 1,700 tonnes, 80 metres, crew 30 + Royal Marines Image: www.armedforces.co.uk/navy