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TEA - Camellia sinensis. Family - Theaceae Genus - Camellia Species - sinensis. Related Plants. Ornamental Camellias. Groups of Tea. China type - C. sinensis var. sinensis Northern slope of the Himalayan Mts Elevated altitudes, semi-humid forest

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tea camellia sinensis

TEA - Camellia sinensis

Family - Theaceae

Genus - Camellia

Species - sinensis

related plants
Related Plants
  • Ornamental Camellias

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groups of tea
Groups of Tea
  • China type - C. sinensis var. sinensis
    • Northern slope of the Himalayan Mts
    • Elevated altitudes, semi-humid forest
    • Bush with small erect leaves with many serrations
    • Flowers are borne singly
    • Greater tolerance to drought and low temp.
    • Main tea produced in China and Japan

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groups of tea1
Groups of Tea
  • Assam type - C. sinensis var. assamica
    • Southern slopes of the Himalayan Mts
    • Found in humid dense forest
    • Tree
    • Leaves are larger with less serrations, less erect, and tend to droop at tips
    • Leaves lighter green color
    • Flower in clusters of 2-4

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origin and domestication of tea
Origin and Domestication of Tea

Assam

China

1833

1930s

Trade with Europe

1600s

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tea domestication
Tea Domestication
  • China type domesticated in south China
    • 4000 years ago?
    • Spread throughout China and Japan
  • Trading with Europe beginning in early 1600s
    • Earliest maritime explorations by the Portuguese and Dutch
    • England enters trade with East India Co in mid to late 1600s
  • East India Trade Co monopoly on tea trade ends in 1833

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tea domestication1
Tea Domestication
  • Tea growing in India investigated
    • Seed of China type were planted various locations
    • Grew best in Assam, NE India - so developed plantations
    • Tea-like plants grew wild throughout forest in this area - these were the Assam type tea
    • Initial plantings were mixtures of China and Assam tea plants
      • Outcrossing plants
      • Seed propagation
      • Hybrid tea populations were developed

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tea domestication2
Tea Domestication
  • Assam region initial area of domestication of Assam tea
    • Late 1800s
      • South India
      • Sri Lanka (esp. after rust destroyed the coffee industry)
      • Java and Indonesia
    • 1930s
      • Equatorial highlands of Central and East Africa
  • Current Assam tea is a hybrid type derived from the initial mixed plantings in NE India

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origin and domestication of tea1
Origin and Domestication of Tea

Assam

China

1833

1930s

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tea production
Tea Production

Increasing

By weight 50% total production of coffee

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tea production1
Tea Production

Much of production consumed locally

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tea importations
Tea Importations

Much of production consumed locally

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the tea plant
The Tea Plant

Perennial evergreen bush/tree

Harvest young leaves

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the tea plant1
The Tea Plant
  • Understorey trees
  • Adaptation
    • Temperature
      • 18-30°C
      • Leaf growth stops
        • Below 13°C
        • Above 35°C
        • Shoot replacement cycle related to temp.
      • Equatorial region
        • Grown in highlands (1000-3000 m)
        • At low latitude/altitude need shade for best growth (Assam type)
    • Rainfall
    • Soil type

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the tea plant2
The Tea Plant
  • Understorey trees
  • Adaptation
    • Rainfall
      • 1150 mm if evenly distributed
    • Soil type
      • Acid soils (pH 4.0 to 5.6)
      • Good drainage
      • Good water holding capacity

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tea plant propagation
Tea Plant Propagation
  • Seed
    • Short period of viability
    • Germinate in sun and plant into pots once begin to emerge
    • 2-3 years before field planting size
    • Traditional approach to propagation
    • Seedlings are not uniform
  • Clonally
    • Single node cuttings
    • Ready for field in 1 year
    • Rooted cuttings are uniform

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tea planting
Tea Planting
  • Density of planting
    • 10,000 to 15,000/ha
  • Use of shade
    • Initially all tea in Assam with shade
    • Now many areas without shade
      • Higher yields without shade
      • Greater response to fertilizer without shade
    • Some exceptions
      • High heat areas (lowlands of north India/Bangladesh)
      • Low input system, in highlands of Kenya, shaded system is equal or better than unshaded

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tea training and pruning
Tea Training and Pruning
  • Training
    • Head back to 20 cm at planting
    • Next year to 40 cm
    • Final year at 60 cm to form a level “plucking table”
  • Pruning
    • Need to cut back periodically
    • Plucking table will slowly rise
    • Periodically need to rejuvenate
      • Prune below branches
      • Bring to bear again

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tea harvesting
Tea Harvesting
  • Harvest - Most done by hand
    • Tips
      • Bud only gives best product
    • Fine plucking - most common
      • Bud plus 2 leaves
    • Coarse plucking
      • Bud plus 3 leaves
  • Important to begin processing quickly

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tea harvesting1
Tea Harvesting

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types of tea
Types of Tea
  • Green Tea
    • Not “fermented”
    • Only China type tea
    • Mainly China and Japan
  • Oolong Tea
    • Semi “fermented”
    • Produced in Taiwan
  • Black Tea (highest production)
    • “Fermented”

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tea processing
Tea Processing

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black tea processing
Black Tea Processing
  • Withering
    • Thin layers of leaves in trays
    • Leaves allowed to dry to lose turgidity
    • 18-24 hours
    • 50% weight loss

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black tea processing1
Black Tea Processing
  • Rolling
    • Twists and breaks up leaf
    • Expresses leaf sap
      • Good contact with flavanols and polyphenol oxidase
    • Done 3-5 times
      • 1st roll = dhools, most tender parts of the leaves
      • 2nd and 3rd rolls = mahls and fines
      • Sticks left over = big bulk
    • Need to keep temp between 27 - 32 C
      • Mechanical heat
      • Heat generated by oxidation

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black tea processing2
Black Tea Processing
  • Fermentation = oxidation
    • Begins with rollers, dhool stages
    • Flavor and aroma develops
    • Leaves turn dark
      • Flavanols >> colored theaflavins, thearubigins
    • Limit of 4-5 hours

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black tea processing3
Black Tea Processing
  • Drying = stops oxidation
    • Time of fermentation
      • Subjective
      • Important in quality
    • In at 82 - 94 C and finish at 53 C
    • Moisture level
      • 54% to 3% moisture

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black tea processing4
Black Tea Processing
  • Grading and Sorting
    • Broken Orange Pekoe (high % buds)
    • Broken Pekoe
    • Orange Pekoe (twisted tender stalk)
    • Pekoe - compact and dense
    • Souchong - compact and dense
    • Broken Orange Pekoe Fanning

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green tea processing
Green Tea Processing
  • Prevent “fermentation”
    • Initial heating to destroy polyphenol oxidase
    • Rolled at 90-100 C for 45-50 min - 50% moisture
    • Rolled without heat for 15 min
    • Dried at 50-60 C (30-40 min) - 30% moisture
    • Rolled on heated pan (80-90 C), 40 min.
    • Dried at 80 C - <6% moisture
    • Sieve to remove stems and debris
    • Final drying

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quality control
Quality Control

Use same weight of tea per cup

Allowed to steep in hot water same time

Grade indicated by cup placement

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quality control1
Quality Control

Judge quality of tea samples

Ensure consistent flavor of blends

Tea judged better gets higher price

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top tea varietals
Top Tea Varietals
  • Darjeeling
    • First flush, light almondy, flowery scent, puckery mouthfeel
    • Second flush, darker, more body, hints of muscat
  • Formosa Oolong
    • Champagne of teas, grown at lower altitudes
    • Aroma of peach blossoms, wisp of smokiness, almost no mouth pucker (astringency)

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top tea varietals1
Top Tea Varietals
  • Yunnan
    • Full body, rich, wispy smokiness, hint of pepperiness
  • Earl Grey
    • Flavored tea
    • Black tea with bergamot (citrus of Sicilian origin)
  • Ceylon
    • Clean, bright flavor

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slide33

Health Benefits of Tea

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health benefits of tea
Health Benefits of Tea
  • Reduce risk of Coronary Heart Disease
    • Epidemiological studies
    • Lowers blood levels of LDL cholesterol
  • Flavonoids are antioxidants
    • 95% polyphenols in tea are flavanoids
    • Higher anti oxidant activity than Vitamin A, C or E - but with less bioavailability
    • Combat free radicals >> reduce risk of cancer
  • Much of benefits not experimentally confirmed

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