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SQL Server 2000 Clustering Jeff Dalton Extreme Logic January 8, 2003 Agenda Why Cluster Cluster Concepts Windows 2000 Cluster Technology SQL Server 2000 Cluster Technology Failover Cluster in Action Best Practices and Resources Improve Operational Excellence

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sql server 2000 clustering

SQL Server 2000 Clustering

Jeff Dalton

Extreme Logic

January 8, 2003

agenda
Agenda
  • Why Cluster
  • Cluster Concepts
  • Windows 2000 Cluster Technology
  • SQL Server 2000 Cluster Technology
  • Failover Cluster in Action
  • Best Practices and Resources
improve operational excellence
Improve Operational Excellence
  • How much downtime can my company afford without losing productivity, profits, sales, etc.?
  • The goal of a highly available system is to provide continuous use of critical data and applications regardless of planned and unplanned interruption
  • Infamous “Five 9s”
  • How available is available and how much will it cost?
    • Knowing the business need will help determine technology costs
    • The more you need, the more you will need to spend
clusters defined
Clusters Defined
  • A cluster is a group of independent computers (nodes) that work together to run a common set of applications and provide the image of a single system (virtual server) to the client and application. The computers are physically connected by cables and programmatically connected by cluster software
  • Two different cluster models in the industry:
    • Shared Nothing (the Microsoft Way)
      • Only one node can own and access a single hardware resource at any time
    • Shared Device
      • Any node can access any hardware resource in the cluster as the Distributed Lock Manager (DLM) arbitrates access
windows 2000 clustering technologies
Windows 2000 Clustering Technologies
  • Server Cluster
    • Intended primarily as a high availability technology to provide failover support for applications such as databases (SQL Server 2000), messaging systems and file/print services
    • 2-node FAILOVER CLUSTERS in Advanced Server and 4-node in Datacenter Server
    • Primary focus of our talk !
  • Network Load Balancing (NLB) Cluster
    • Load balances incoming IP traffic across clusters of up to 32 nodes
    • Enhances both availability and scalability of Internet server-based programs such as Web Servers
benefits of windows 2000 clustering
Benefits of Windows 2000 Clustering
  • High Availability (think Server Cluster)
    • Designed to avoid Single Point of Failure (SPoF)
    • Ability of an application to continue operation with loss of single component
    • Ownership of resources automatically transferred to surviving server; users experience only a momentary pause in service
  • Scalability (think NLB Cluster)
    • Ability of an application to grow in size as user demand increases by adding additional processors and/or nodes
    • Scale Up and Scale Out
  • Manageability
    • Cluster Administrator
    • Single Point of Control (can be remote)
    • Cluster appears as a single-system image
server cluster logical view
Server ClusterLogical View

Client PCs

Virtual Server

Server B

Server A

Heartbeat

Common Disk Array

network load balancing cluster logical view
No single point of failure

No performance bottleneck

No additional hardware needed

Grow incrementally as demand increases

Up to 32 nodes in a cluster

NLB Host

NLB Host

NLB Host

NLB Host

NLB Host

Network Load Balancing ClusterLogical View

Internet/

intranet

NLB Virtual

IP Address

server cluster terminology
Server Cluster Terminology
  • Node
    • Individual computers that comprise a cluster
    • 2 in Windows AS, 4 in Windows DCS
  • Heartbeat
    • Private Network between nodes in the cluster to check if node is alive
  • External Networking
    • At least one public network so that outside world can connect to the cluster
  • Resource
    • Managed Hardware or Software components (Disks, IP addresses, applications, databases)
  • Resource Group
    • Resource Group is the collection of logically related cluster resources that are treated as a unit during node operations
server cluster terminology 2
Server Cluster Terminology 2
  • Common “Shared Nothing” Disk Array
    • Collection of physical disks (SCSI RAID or Fibre Channel) that will be accessed by the cluster
    • Only one node can own a given resource at any given time
  • Virtual Server (Key Concept!!!!)
    • The outside world sees the Virtual Server (server name and IP address) as a single image system of the multiple nodes
  • Quorum Resource/Drive
    • Special and Required Common Resource - physical disk in the common cluster disk array that plays a critical role in cluster operations (form/join)
  • Failover/Failback
    • Act of moving from failed node(s) to surviving node(s) and back again (if needed)
sqlserver 2000 failover clustering
SQLServer 2000 Failover Clustering
  • Feature of SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition
  • Automatic Failover and “Quick Restart”
    • Not a scalability solution
    • Doesn’t obviate need for Database Disaster/Backup/Recovery
  • Requires specialized hardware solutions
  • Clients will be disconnected on failure but can reconnect relatively quickly
    • Still connect to the same server/IP Address
  • Server/transaction recovery is automatic
    • Because the data and transaction log files are failed over
    • Recovery from a failure looks like a normal server startup to the failed over server
other sqlserver 2000 ha options
Other SQLServer 2000 HA Options
  • Log Shipping
    • New feature of SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition
    • Concept has been in use for a long time
      • Transaction logs from a primary database and apply them to a secondary
    • Great primary or secondary method even if you can’t afford failover clustering
  • Replication
    • Not the traditional method of HA – technology has been around for a long time
    • Sometimes better than log shipping for transactional consistency
    • Easy to replicate read-only data
    • Possibly more complex, additional resources
    • Uses – reporting, read only, possibly updates; partition data
failover configurations
Failover Configurations
  • Active-Passive
    • SQL Server on “primary” instance running, secondary instance is idle until a failover
  • Active-Active
    • SQL Server is running on both servers in the cluster simultaneously with different databases
    • But they are independent of each other (no load balancing or data sharing)
  • Active/Active/Active/Active on 4-node !
  • NOTES
    • In SQL 2000, these terms are “deprecated”, still popular though…
    • In SQL 2000, we use the term “SQL Virtual Server Instances”
failover cluster in action
Failover Cluster in Action

Server A

Server B

SQL Server

Heartbeat

SQL Server

Cluster management

Disk cabinet A

Disk cabinet B

slide16
Bang !

Server A

Server B

SQL Server

Heartbeat

SQL Server

Cluster management

Disk cabinet A

Disk cabinet B

all s clear
All’s Clear !

Server A

Server B

?

SQL Server

Heartbeat

SQL Server

Cluster management

Disk cabinet A

Disk cabinet B

failback if needed
Failback (if needed)

Server A

Server B

SQL Server

Heartbeat

SQL Server

Cluster management

Disk cabinet A

Disk cabinet B

rolling upgrades
Rolling Upgrades

1

Resource1

Resource2

rolling upgrades20

2

Resource1

Rolling Upgrades

1

Resource1

Resource2

Upgrade

Resource2

rolling upgrades21

2

Resource1

3

Resource1

Resource2

Rolling Upgrades

1

Resource1

Resource2

Upgrade

Resource2

Upgrade

rolling upgrades22

2

Resource1

4

3

Resource1

Resource2

Rolling Upgrades

1

Resource1

Resource2

Upgrade

Resource2

Upgrade

Resource1

Resource2

implementation tips
Implementation Tips
  • Plan, plan, plan!
  • Plan shared disk space
  • Don’t skimp on hardware
  • Test, test, test!
  • Cluster failover
  • Hardware failures
    • Network cards and cables
    • Shared disk arrays and cables
    • Entire node shutdowns
  • SQL Server and application failures
best practices and resources
Best Practices and Resources
  • Be prepared to READ a lot
    • SQL2K BOL
      • Great place to start for common questions, installation order, deployment considerations, supported configurations, etc.
    • SQL2K Resource Kit
      • Must Read Part 4 Chapters 12-16
    • Presentation Resources Page
  • Microsoft supports only validated cluster configurations (Hardware Compatibility List)
  • Special Considerations
    • Ensure that each server is a member of the same domain
    • Only one MSDTC per Cluster
    • SQL 2000 Analysis service (OLAP)
    • SQL Mail (MAPI is not cluster aware)
    • Nothing should go on the Quorum Drive
more resources
More Resources
  • Web Resources
  • Windows 2000 Clustering Technologies Home Page (Technical and Introductory Overviews)http://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/technologies/clustering/default.asp
  • Step-by-Step Guide to Installing Cluster Servicehttp://www.microsoft.com/windows2000/techinfo/planning/server/clustersteps.asp
  • Building a Highly Available Database Clusterhttp://msdn.microsoft.com/library/techart/d5clustering.htm
  • Best Practices for End-to-End High Availabilityhttp://www.microsoft.com/technet/avail/bestprac/bestprac.htm
  • Microsoft Support ArticlesQ243218, INF: Installation Order for SQL Server 2000 Enterprise Edition on Microsoft Cluster Serverhttp://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q243/2/18.ASP
  • Q260758, INF: Frequently Asked Questions - SQL Server 2000 - Failover Clusteringhttp://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/q260/7/58.asp
  • Q274446, INF: Upgrade to a SQL Server 2000 Failover Solution Recommended for All non-SQL Server 2000 Virtual Servershttp://support.microsoft.com/support/kb/articles/Q274/4/46.ASP
  • Microsoft Newsgroupsmicrosoft.public.sqlserver.clustering
  • Other Resources
  • Microsoft Support Webcasts
  • Windows Clustering: An Overview of Microsoft Clustering Technologies http://support.microsoft.com/servicedesks/Webcasts/WC012100/WCBLURB012100.ASP
  • Introduction to Microsoft SQL Server 2000 Clustering http://support.microsoft.com/servicedesks/webcasts/wc051001/wcblurb051001.asp