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SQL Server 2000 Administration - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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SQL Server 2000 Administration. John Syre C ollaborative D ata S ervices Fred Hutch Cancer Research Center. CDS Brownbag Series (In the spirit of sharing). This is the 12th in a series of seminars Materials for the series can be downloaded from https://cds.fhcrc.org/downloads.aspx

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Sql server 2000 administration l.jpg

SQL Server 2000 Administration

John Syre

Collaborative Data Services

Fred Hutch Cancer

Research Center

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CDS Brownbag Series(In the spirit of sharing)

  • This is the 12th in a series of seminars

  • Materials for the series can be downloaded from https://cds.fhcrc.org/downloads.aspx

  • Sign up to be on our email list

Next Brown Bag June 6

Creating Web Apps with ASP.NET 2.0 and Visual Studio 2005By Paul Litwin, 12:30-1:45 p.m (refer to web site for location)

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Agenda of Topics

Installing SQL Server

Designing & Implementing Databases

Creating & Managing Tables

Designing & Configuring SQL Server Security

Importing and Exporting Data

Backing Up SQL Server Databases

Restoring SQL Server Databases

Automating SQL Server Administration

Monitoring SQL Server

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Installing SQL Server

  • Do not install SQL Server on a system that is also a domain controller.

  • Disable SQL Server ports on your firewall

  • Use the most secure file system NTFS

  • If possible, put database and transaction log on different physical disks.

  • My preference is not use the SQL Server installation directory for database files and backups.

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Typical Raid Installation


for writes

Put on different drives

for better performance

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Non-RAID with Separate Disks

  • If your configuration allows then each of the following should be put on different disks to optimize performance

  • Databases

  • Transaction Logs

  • tempdb

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System Databases Created

Databases created during an installation

  • Master

    • The master database records all of the system level information for a SQL Server system.

  • Msdb

    • The msdb database is used by SQL Server Agent for scheduling alerts and jobs, and recording operators.

  • Model

    • The model database is used as the template for all databases created on a system.

  • Tempdb

    • Holds all temporary tables and temporary stored procedures. Note order by creates a temporary table in tempdb.

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Create Database using Enterprise Manager

Using tools in Enterprise Manager

  • Select the Run a Wizard from the Tool Bar

    • From the dialog select Database->Create Database Wizard

    • This provides a step by step process. Defaults are presented where available.

  • Right click on databases in the left explorer window and select New Database

    • Under the 3 tabs General, Data Files and Transaction Logs specify the database name, location, and other properties.

    • You will have to enter the correct values for locations, etc.

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Databases Properties

  • If you want to see details about an existing database right click on the database in the explorer window select Properties

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Create Database DDL

USE master




FILENAME ='f:\sqlserverdata\MSSQL\data\MYDB_Data.MDF',




FILENAME ='f:\sqlserverdata\MSSQL\data\MYDB_Data.MDF',




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Create/Manage Tables with Table Designer

  • Provides graphical interface to easily select column data types

  • When making changes automatically handles constraints for you

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Table Designer Features

  • Set properties for columns

  • Create and manipulate relationships between tables, including choosing primary and foreign keys for the relationship

  • Create and manipulate indexes, primary keys, and unique constraints attached to a table Indexes/Keys

  • Create and manipulate check constraints

  • Changes are not applied until you close the designer

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Table Creation Recommendations

  • Don’t use spaces in names

  • Always create a primary key

  • Try to avoid NULLs, use default values instead

  • Be careful of names being too long, some tools use the name of table in creating other entities like stored procedures

  • Take into consideration other databases you may want to support when naming tables

  • Some say always create a clustered index (only allowed one per table). My take, “It depends on the situation.”

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DDL for Creating Tables

CREATE TABLE [dbo].[Allergies] (

[PatientId] [int] NOT NULL ,

[AllergyId] [int] IDENTITY (1, 1) NOT NULL ,

[Allergen] [varchar] (50) ,

[AllergyResponse] [varchar] (50) ,






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DDL for changing a Table

  • Note: can only add one column at a time. New columns are added to the end of the table definition.


ADD EnteredDate datetime NOT NULL

ALTER TABLE [dbo].[Allergies] ADD




) REFERENCES [dbo].[Patients] (




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Designing & Configuring Security

  • Use the Microsoft Baseline Security Analyzer (MBSA). Download from http://www.microsoft.com/technet/security/tools/mbsahome.mspx

  • Install the latest service packs

  • Implement good administrative and development policies

  • Limit privilege level of SQL Server Services

  • Use Windows Authentication Mode for internet

  • Audit connections to SQL Server

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Audit connections to SQL Server

Steps required

  • Expand a server group.

  • Right-click a server, and then click Properties.

  • On the Security tab, under Audit Level, click Failure.

You must stop and restart the server for this setting to take effect.

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Security Checklist

  • Too many members of the sysadmin fixed server role.

  • Blank or trivial passwords.

  • Weak authentication mode.

  • Excessive rights granted to the Administrators group.

  • Incorrect access control lists (ACLs) on SQL Server data directories.

  • Plaintext sa password in setup files.

  • Excessive rights granted to the guest account (If you don’t need it, best to delete it).

  • Improper configuration of the Everyone group, providing access to certain registry keys.

  • Improper configuration of SQL Server service accounts.

  • Missing service packs and security updates.

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Limit privilege level of SQL Server Services.

  • SQL Server Engine/MSSQLServer

    • Run as a Windows domain user account with regular user privileges.

  • SQL Server Agent Service/SQLServerAgent

    • Run as a Windows domain user account with regular user privileges. Note may not be able to if VBScripts need special privileges.

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Importing & Exporting Tables

  • DTS (Data Transformation Services)

    • Preferred method of handling data

    • Most flexible of the methods

  • BCP (Bulk CoPy)

    • Command line utility (import & export)

    • Faster method than DTS for large data sets

  • Bulk Insert (import only)

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DTS Overview

  • Provides a set of tools that lets you extract, transform, and consolidate data from disparate sources into single or multiple destinations

  • Can use graphical DTS Package Designer to build transformations or can program command line executable packages using DTS object model.

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Types of Backups

Simple (does not allow transaction log backups)

Operations that are not logged

Bulk load operations

Select Into

Create Index

Text/image operations

Full(allows transaction log backups)

All operations fully logged.

Bulk Logged (allows transaction log backups)

Operations that are not logged

Same as Simple mode

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Use Simple when

  • Your data is not critical.

  • Losing all transactions since the last full or differential backup is not an issue.

  • Data is derived from other data sources and is easily recreated.

  • Data is static and does not change often.

  • Space is limited to log transactions. (This may be a short-term reason, but not a good long-term reason.)

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Use Bulk Logged

  • Data is critical, but logging large data loads bogs down the system.

  • Most bulk operations are done off hours and do not interfere with normal transaction processing.

  • You need to be able to recover to a point in time.

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Use Full when

  • Data is critical and no data can be lost.

  • You always need the ability to do a point-in-time recovery (transaction logs must also be backed up).

  • Bulk-logged activities are intermixed with normal transaction processing.

  • You are using replication and need the ability to resynchronize all databases involved in replication to a specific point in time.

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Switching between modes

What if you want to have Full mode backups but you have a large bulk load data operation??

  • Use the following command


  • Or use Enterprise Manager

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When to Backup the master database



  • sp_addlogin

  • sp_droplogin

  • Modified system configuration parameters

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Creating a Backup Plan

  • Enterprise Manager select the “Run a Wizard” tool. Expand Management select Database Maintenace Plan Wizard

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Selecting Databases

  • Select the databases you want to backup from the list

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Set Options

  • Select options

  • Specify time interval

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Checking database integrity

  • You can optionally check the integrity before backing up the database

  • Additional dialog windows for specifying Tranaction Log backups and historical logs

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Recovering Databases

Timeline showing database usage and backup strategy

  • First recover the database backup

  • Apply Transaction Log from 12:00 noon

  • Next apply Transaction Log from 6:00 PM

  • Have to again modify 10 records

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Restore Database Tool

  • From Enterprise Manager, select from the Main menu

    Tools ->Restore Database

  • Select the database to restore to (Note: you can can pick a different database name to restore to)

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Restore Options

  • Select additional options as needed

  • If loading a database backup created on another system may need to modify path locations

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SQL Server won’t Start!! master database corrupted

  • May have a bad master database to recover

  • Execute rebuildm.exe shown on right to rebuild master database. Located in (installdir)\Microsoft SQL Server\80\Tools\Binn

  • Restore last backup of master

  • Re-attach databases: right click on Databases then All Tasks->Attach Databases…

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Automating SQL Server Administration

ALERTS (configured in SQL Agent)

  • Examples of event alerts:

    • Database out of space

    • SQL Server was abnormally terminated

    • Database is corrupted

    • Table is corrupted

  • Examples of performance condition alerts:

    • Transaction log almost full

    • Number of merge conflicts exceeds an user-defined threshold

  • Examples of custom alerts:

    • Low inventory

    • Aborted download

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SQL Agent

  • Installed with SQL Server it is a task scheduler and alert manager.

  • Features:capability to email or page an operator when an event occurs

  • Provides history logs of scheduled jobs

  • Runs as a separate windows service SQLServerAgent

  • Make sure it is set to autostart

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Automating SQL Server Administration

ALERTS (configured in SQL Agent)

  • Following are examples of event alerts:

    • Database out of space

    • SQL Server was abnormally terminated

    • Database is corrupted

    • Table is corrupted

  • Following are examples of performance condition alerts:

    • Transaction log almost full

    • Number of merge conflicts exceeds an user-defined threshold

  • Following are examples of custom alerts:

    • Low inventory

    • Aborted download

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Monitoring SQL Server

  • SQL Profiler

  • System Monitor

  • SQL Server Enterprise Manager

  • Error Logs

  • Transact-SQL Statements

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tempdb log full!!

Error: The log file for database 'tempdb' is full.

  • If you have a development SQL Server life is easy, just re-start SQL Server. The tempdb is rebuilt on start up.

  • If a production server, then much more painful.

    • Refer to http://www.aspfaq.com/show.asp?id=2446 for steps to correct.