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The Sagnac Effect and the Chirality of Space Time Prof. R. M. Kiehn, Emeritus Physics, Univ. of Houston www.cartan.pair.com rkiehn2352@aol.com SPIE, San Diego Aug 25-30, 2007 This presentation consists of several parts 1. Fringes vs. Beats

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slide1

The Sagnac Effect and the Chirality of Space Time

Prof. R. M. Kiehn, Emeritus

Physics, Univ. of Houston

www.cartan.pair.com

rkiehn2352@aol.com

SPIE, San Diego Aug 25-30, 2007

slide3

This presentation consists of several parts

1. Fringes vs. Beats

2. The Sagnac effect and the

dual Polarized Ring Laser

slide4

This presentation consists of several parts

1. Fringes vs. Beats

2. The Sagnac effect and the

dual Polarized Ring Laser

3. The Chirality of the Cosmos

slide5

(And if there is time – a bit of heresy)

4. Compact domains of Constitutive

properties that lead to non-radiating

“Electromagnetic Molecules”

slide6

(And if there is time – a bit of heresy)

4. Compact domains of Constitutive

properties that lead to non-radiating

“Electromagnetic Molecules”

with infinite Radiation Impedance ?!

slide7

(And if there is time – a bit of heresy)

4. Compact domains of Constitutive

properties that lead to non-radiating

“Electromagnetic Molecules”

with infinite Radiation Impedance ?!

Or why an orbiting electron does not radiate

slide8

1a. Fringes vs. Beats

1 = e i(k1• r - 1 t)2 = e i(k2• r - 2 t)

Superpose two outbound waves k1  k2, 1  2

slide9

1a. Fringes vs. Beats

1 = e i(k1• r - 1 t)2 = e i(k2• r - 2 t)

Two outbound waves superposed: k = k1 - k2 = 1 - 2

1 + 2~2 cos(k•r/2 - ω•t/2)1

slide10

Fringes vs. Beats

1 = e i(k1• r - 1 t)2 = e i(k2• r - 2 t)

Two outbound waves superposed: k = k1 - k2 = 1 - 2

1 + 2=2 cos(k•r/2 - ω•t/2)1

Fringes are measurements of wave vector variations k(t = constant, r varies)

slide11

Fringes vs. Beats

1 = e i(k1• r - 1 t)2 = e i(k1• r - 2 t)

Two outbound waves superposed: k = k1 - k2 = 1 - 2

1 + 2=2 cos(k•r/2 - ω•t/2)1

Fringes are measurements of wave vector variations k(t = constant, r varies)

Beats are measurements of frequency variations: ω(r = constant, t varies)

slide12

Phase vs. Group velocity

Phase Velocity = /k = C/n

C = Lorentz Speed

n = index of refraction

slide13

Phase vs. Group velocity

Phase Velocity = /k = C/n

C = Lorentz Speed

n = index of refraction

Group Velocity = d/dk ~ /k

C/n  /k

slide14

4 Propagation Modes

Outbound Phase

1 = e i(k1• r - 1 t)2 = e i(- k2• r + 2 t)

k =

k =

slide15

4 Propagation Modes

Outbound Phase

1 = e i(k1• r - 1 t)2 = e i(- k2• r + 2 t)

k =

k =

Note opposite orientations of Wave and phase vectors

slide16

4 Propagation Modes

Outbound Phase

1 = e i(k1• r - 1 t)2 = e i(- k2• r + 2 t)

k =

k =

Inbound Phase

3 = e i(k3• r + 3 t)4 = e i(- k4• r - 4 t)

k =

k =

Note opposite orientations of wave and phase vectors

slide17

4 Propagation Modes

Mix Outbound phase pairs

or Inbound phase pairs

for Fringes and Beats.

slide18

4 Propagation Modes

Mix Outbound phase pairs

or Inbound phase pairs

for Fringes and Beats.

Mix Outbound with Inbound phase pairs

to produce Standing Waves.

slide19

4 Propagation Modes

Mix all 4 modes for

“Phase Entanglement”

Each of the phase modes has a 4 component

isotropic spinor representation!

slide23

The fringes require that the optical paths are equal to within a coherence length of the photons.

L = C • decay time ~ 3 meters for Na light

slide24

Many are not familiar with the use of

multiple path optics (1887).

slide25

1c. The Sagnac interferometer.

With the measurement of fringes (old)

slide26

The Sagnac interferometer encloses a finite area,

The M-M interferometer encloses ~ zero area.

slide27

The Sagnac interferometer responds to rotation

The M-M interferometer does not.

slide28

1d. The Sagnac Ring Laser interferometer.

With the measurement of Beats (modern)

Has any one measured beats in a M M interferometer ??

slide29

Two beam (CW and CCW linearly polarized)

Sagnac Ring with internal laser light source

Linear Polarized

Ring Laser

Polarization fixed by Brewster windows

slide30

Dual Polarized

Ring Laser

Dual Polarized

Polarization beam splitters

4 Polarized beams –CWLH, CCWLH, CWRH, CCWRH

Sagnac Ring with internal laser light source

slide31

Ring laser - Early design

Brewster windows for single linear polarization state

Rotation rate of the earth produces a beat signal of about 2-10 kHz depending on enclosed area.

slide40

Dual Polarized Ring Lasers

Non-reciprocal measurements with a

Q = ~ 1018

Better than Mossbauer

slide41

Dual Polarized Ring Lasers

Non-reciprocal measurements with a

Q = ~ 1018

Better than Mossbauer

This technology has had little exploitation !!!

slide42

Non-Reciprocal Media.

As this is a conference for Optical Engineers, who know that the speed of light can be different for different states of polarization, let me start out with the first, little appreciated, heretical statement:

slide43

Non-Reciprocal Media.

As this is a conference for Optical Engineers, who know that the speed of light can be different for different states of polarization, let me start out with the first, little appreciated, heretical statement:

In Non-Reciprocal media,

the Speed of light not only depends upon polarization, but also depends upon the direction of propagation.

slide44

Non-reciprocal Media

Faraday rotation or Fresnel-Fizeau

Consider Linearly polarized light passing through

Faraday

or Optical Active media

slide45

Non-reciprocal Media

Faraday rotation or Fresnel-Fizeau

Consider Linearly polarized light passing through

Faraday

or Optical Active media

Exact Solutions given by E. J. Post 1962

slide46

These concepts stimulated a search for apparatus which could measure the effects of gravity on the polarization of an EM wave,

slide47

These concepts stimulated a search for apparatus which could measure the effects of gravity on the polarization of an EM wave,and ultimately to practical applications of a dual polarized ring laser.

Every one should read

E. J. Post

“The Formal Structure of Electromagnetics”

North Holland 1962 or Dover 1997

slide48

The Faraday Ratchet can accumulate tiny phase shifts from multiple to-fro reflections.

The hope was that such a device could capture the tiny effect of gravity on the polarization of the PHOTON.

slide49

The Faraday Ratchet can accumulate tiny phase shifts from multiple to-fro reflections.

The hope was that such a device could capture the tiny effect of gravity on the polarization of the PHOTON.

It was soon determined that classical EM theory would not give an answer to EM - gravity polarization interactions.

slide51

Technique

Tune to a single mode.

If no intra Optical Cavity effects,

then get a single beat frequency

due to Sagnac Rotation.

slide52

Tune to a single mode.

If no intra Optical Cavity effects,

then get a single beat frequency

due to Sagnac Rotation.

If A.O. and Faraday effects

are combined in the Optical Cavity,

then get 4 beat frequencies.

slide53

Conclusion

The 4 different beams have

4 different phase velocities,

dependent upon

polarization and

propagation direction.

slide54

Experiments conducted by V. Sanders and R. M. Kiehn in 1977, using dual polarized ring lasers verified that the speed of light can have a 4 different phase velocities depending upon direction and polarization. The 4-fold Lorentz degeneracy can be broken.

Such solutions to the Fresnel Maxwell theory, subject to a gauge constraint, were published first in 1979. After patents were secured, the full theory of singular solutions to Maxwell’s equations without gauge constraints was released for publication in Physical Review in 1991.

R. M. Kiehn, G. P. Kiehn, and B. Roberds,

Parity and time-reversal symmetry breaking, singular solutions and Fresnel surfaces,

Phys. Rev A 43, pp. 5165-5671, 1991.

Examples of the theory are presented in the next slides, which shows the exact solution for the Fresnel Kummer singular wave surface for combined Optical Activity and Faraday Rotation.

slide55

Generalized Fresnel Analysis of Singular Solutions to Maxwell’s Equations (propagating photons)

slide56

Generalized Fresnel Analysis of Singular Solutions to Maxwell’s Equations (propagating photons)

Theoretical existence of 4-modes of photon propagation

as measured in the dual polarized Ring Laser.

slide57

The 4 modes correspond to:

1. Outbound LH polarization

2. Outbound RH polarization

3. Inbound LH polarization

4. Inbound RH polarization

slide58

Fundamental PDE’s of Electromagnetism

A review

Maxwell Faraday PDE’s

Maxwell Ampere PDE’s

slide59

Lorentz Constitutive Equations -- The Lorentz vacuum

Substitute into PDE,s get vector wave equation

Phase velocity

slide60

EM from a Topological Viewpoint.

USE EXTERIOR DIFFERENTIAL FORMS, NOT TENSORS

Exterior differential forms, A, F and G, carry topological information.

They are not restricted by tensor diffeomorphisms

For any 4D system of base variables

slide62

EM from a Topological Viewpoint.

USE EXTERIOR DIFFERENTIAL FORMS, NOT TENSORS

Exterior differential forms, A, F and G, carry topological information.

They are not restricted by tensor diffeomorphisms

F is an exact and closed 2-Form, A is a 1-form of Potentials.

G is closed but not exact, 2-Form. J = dG, is exact and closed.

slide63

EM from a Topological Viewpoint.

USE EXTERIOR DIFFERENTIAL FORMS, NOT TENSORS

Exterior differential forms, A, F and G, carry topological information.

They are not restricted by tensor diffeomorphisms/

F is an exact and closed 2-Form, A is a 1-form of Potentials.

G is closed but not exact, 2-Form. J = dG, is exact and closed.

Topological limit points are determined by exterior differentiation

dF = 0generatesMaxwell Faraday PDE’s

dG = J generatesMaxwell Ampere PDE’s

For any 4D system of base variables

slide68

EM from a Topological Viewpoint.

dF = 0generatesMaxwell Faraday PDE’s

dG = J generatesMaxwell Ampere PDE’s

A differential ideal (if J=0) for any 4D system of base variables

slide69

EM from a Topological Viewpoint.

dF = 0generatesMaxwell Faraday PDE’s

dG = J generatesMaxwell Ampere PDE’s

A differential ideal (if J=0) for any 4D system of base variables

Find a phase function 1-form: =kmdxm dt

Such that the intersections of the 1-form,,and the 2-forms vanish

^F = 0 ^G = 0

Also require that J =0.

slide70

^F = 0 ^G = 0 In Engineering Format become:

k × E − ωB = 0, k · B = 0,

k × H + ωD = 0, k · D = 0,

Six equations in 12 unknowns. !!

Need 6 more equations

The Constitutive Equations

slide71

Constitutive Equation examples

Lorentz vacuum is NOT chiral,  = 0

slide72

Constitutive Equation examples

Generalized Complex Constitutive Matrix

slide73

Constitutive Equation examples

Generalized Complex Constitutive Matrix

Generalized Complex Constitutive Equation

slide74

Chiral Constitutive Equation Examples

Generalized Chiral Constitutive Equation

[  ]  0

[  ] Gamma is a complex matrix.

slide75

Chiral Constitutive Equation Examples

Diagonal Chiral Constitutive Equation

 Gamma is complex

slide76

Chiral Constitutive Equation Examples

Diagonal Chiral Constitutive Equation

 Gamma is complex

The real part of Gamma represents Fresnel-Fizeau effects.

The Imaginary part of Gamma represents Optical Activity

slide77

Chiral Constitutive Equation Examples

Diagonal Chiral Constitutive Equation

The Wave Speed does not depend upon Fresnel Fizeau  “Expansions”

(the real diagonal part).

The Wave Speed depends upon OA “expansions”,

(the imaginary diagonal part).

The Radiation Impedance depends upon both “expansions”.

slide78

Chiral Constitutive Equation Examples

Fresnel-Fizeau  “rotation” + diagonal Chiral  “expansions”

slide79

Chiral Constitutive Equation Examples

Fresnel-Fizeau  “rotation” + diagonal Chiral  “expansions”

Combination of Fresnel-Fizeau “rotation”, , about z-axis

and

Diagonal Optical Activity + Fresnel-Fizeau “expansion”, .

slide80

Chiral Constitutive Equation Examples

Fresnel-Fizeau  “rotation” + diagonal Chiral  “expansions”

Combination of Fresnel-Fizeau “rotation”, , about z-axis

and

Diagonal Optical Activity + Fresnel-Fizeau “expansion”, .

WILL PRODUCE 4 PHASE VELOCITIES

depending on POLARIZATION and K vector

slide81

This Chiral Constitutive Equation

Explains the Dual Polarized

Sagnac ring laser

slide82

Sagnac Effect Fresnel Surface

The index of refraction has 4 distinct values depending upon direction and polarization.

Z axis: Index of refraction 4 roots =1/3  - 1/2

slide84

3. The Chirality of the Cosmos

Definition of a chiral space

A chiral space is an electromagnetic system

of fields E, B, D, H

constrained by a complex 6x6 Constitutive Matrix

which admits solubility for a real phase function that satisfies both the Eikonal and the Wave equation.

slide85

3. The Chirality of the Cosmos

Definition of a chiral space

A chiral space is an electromagnetic system

of fields E, B, D, H

constrained by a complex 6x6 Constitutive Matrix

which admits solubility for a real phase function that satisfies both the Eikonal and the Wave equation.

Hence any function of the phase function is a solution to the wave equation.

slide86

3. The Chirality of the Cosmos

Definition of a chiral Vacuum

The chiral Vacuum is a chiral space

which is free from charge and current densities.

J = 0,  = 0

slide87

3. The Chirality of the Cosmos

Definition of a chiral Vacuum

The chiral Vacuum is a chiral space

which is free from charge and current densities.

Can the Cosmological Vacuum be Chiral ?

slide88

3. The Chirality of the Cosmos

Definition of a chiral Vacuum

The chiral Vacuum is a chiral space

which is free from charge and current densities.

Can the Cosmological Vacuum be Chiral ?

Can the chirality be measured ?

slide89

The Lorentz Vacuum

For the Lorentz vacuum, it is straight forward to show that there is no Charge-Current density and the fields satisfy the vector Wave Equation.

slide90

The Simple Chiral Vacuum

For the Lorentz vacuum, it is straight forward to show that there is no Charge-Current density and the fields satisfy the vector Wave Equation.

slide91

Use Maple to solve more complicated cases:

Six equations 12 unknowns

k x E -  B = 0, k x H +  D = 0

Use Constitutive Equation to yield 6 more equations

Define

Technique: Use constitutive equations to eliminate, say, D and B

This yields a 6 x 6 Homogenous matrix in 6 unknowns.

The determinant of the Homogeneous matrix must vanish

slide92

The determinant can be evaluated in terms of the 3 x 3 sub matrices of the 6 x 6 complex constitutive matrix and the anti-symmetric 3 x 3 matrix, [ n x ] composed of the vector, n = k /ω.The determinant formula is:

The general constitutive matrix can lead to tedious computations. A Maple program takes away the drudgery.

slide93

Conformal off-diagonal chiral matrices

Simplified (diagonal )

Constitutive matrix for a chiral Vacuum

  • =  + i 

 =  1  =  1

slide94

Conformal + Rotation chiral matrices

Simplified (diagonal  + Fresnel rotation ) Constitutive matrix for a chiral Vacuum

Leads to Sagnac 4 phase velocities

slide95

Semi-Simplified Constitutive Matrix with Conformal + Rotation chiral submatrices

f = Fresnel Fizeau diagonal real part (“conformal expansion”)

ω = Fresnel Fizeau antisymmetric real part (“rotation”)

 = Optical Activity antisymmetric imaginary part (“rotation”)

 = Optical Activity diagonal imaginary part (“conformal expansion”)

slide96

The Wave Phase Velocity and the

Reciprocal Radiation Impedance

depend upon

the anti-symmetric rotations,

and the conformal factors of the

complex chiral (off diagonal) part

of the Constitutive Matrix.

slide97

The Wave Phase Velocity and the

Reciprocal Radiation Impedance

depend upon

the anti-symmetric rotations,

and the conformal factors of the

complex chiral (off diagonal) part

of the Constitutive Matrix.

(All isotropic conformal + rotation chiral matrices have a center of symmetry, unless the Fresnel rotation, ω, is not zero)

slide98

As an example of the algebraic complexity, the HAMILTONIAN and ADMittance determinants are shown above for the semi-simplified case.

slide99

Fresnel Fizeau Conformal f does not effect phase velocity

AO Conformal  modifies phase velocity

Fresnel Fizeau Rotation  modifies phase velocity

AO rotation  modifies phase velocity

slide100

Fresnel Fizeau Conformal f does not effect phase velocity

AO Conformal  modifies phase velocity

Fresnel Fizeau Rotation  modifies phase velocity

AO rotation  modifies phase velocity

All factors give an effect on chiral admittance (cubed):

slide101

Fresnel Fizeau Conformal f does not effect phase velocity

AO Conformal  modifies phase velocity

Fresnel Fizeau Rotation  modifies phase velocity

AO rotation  modifies phase velocity

All factors give an effect on chiral admittance (cubed):

IN fact it is possible for the admittance ADM to be ZERO,

But this implies the radiation impedance

Z goes to infinity (not 376.73 ohms) !!!

slide102

The idea that chiral effects could cause the Admittance to go to Zero is startling to me.

Zero Admittance  infinite Radiation Impedance, Z !

slide103

The idea that chiral effects could cause the Admittance to go to Zero is startling to me.

Zero Admittance  infinite Radiation Impedance, Z !

Can this idea impact antenna design?

slide106

Zero Admittance  infinite impedance

What would be the effects of a chiral universe on Cosmology ???

?

slide107

Zero Admittance  infinite impedance

What would be the effects of a chiral universe on Cosmology ???

Is the Universe Rotating as well as Expanding ?

slide108

Zero Admittance  infinite impedance

What would be the effects of a chiral universe on Cosmology ???

Is the Universe Rotating as well as Expanding ?

Could the chiral effect be tied to dark matter -- where increased radiation impedance causes compact composites to bind together more than would be expected ??

slide109

Zero Admittance  infinite impedance

What would be the effects of a chiral universe on Cosmology ???

Is the Universe Rotating as well as Expanding ?

Could the chiral effect be tied to dark matter -- where increased radiation impedance causes compact composites to bind together more than would be expected ??

-- Could the infinite radiation impedance be tied to compact composites such as molecules and atoms which do not Radiate ?

slide110

Hopefully these questions will be addressed on Cartan’s Corner

Optical Black Holes in a swimming pool

http://www.cartan.pair.com

slide115

The 4-mode Sagnac Effect - with No center of symmetry

Real ω = 1/3, f = 0, Imag  = 1/6,  = 0

slide116
Ebooks – Paperback, or Free pdfhttp://www.lulu.com/kiehn orhttp://www.cartan.pair.comemail: rkiehn2352@aol.com