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Chapter 15. Population and urbanization. Chapter Outline. Demography: The Study of Population Population Growth in Global Context A Brief Glimpse at International Migration Theories Urbanization in Global Perspective. Chapter Outline. Perspectives on Urbanization and the Growth of Cities

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chapter 15

Chapter 15

Population and urbanization

chapter outline
Chapter Outline
  • Demography: The Study of Population
  • Population Growth in Global Context
  • A Brief Glimpse at International Migration Theories
  • Urbanization in Global Perspective
chapter outline3
Chapter Outline
  • Perspectives on Urbanization and the Growth of Cities
  • Problems in Global Cities
  • Urban Problems in the United States
  • Population and Urbanization in the Future
  • World’s population of 6.5 billion in 2006 is increasing by more than 76 million people per year.
  • Between 2000 and 2030, almost all of the world’s 1.4 % annual population growth will occur in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America.
  • Preventive care
changes in population
Changes in Population

Changes occur as a result of three processes:

  • Fertility (births)
  • Mortality (deaths)
  • Crude birth
  • Crude death
  • Infant mortality rate
  • Preventive check

Two types of movement:

  • Immigration; is the movement of people into a geographic area to take up residency.
  • Emigration is the movement of people out of a geographic area to take up residency elsewhere.
population pyramid
Population Pyramid
  • A graphic representation of the distribution of a population by sex and age.
  • Network theory
population composition
Population Composition
  • The biological and social characteristics of a population, including age, sex, race, marital status, education, occupation, income, and size of household.
  • The sex ratio is the number of males for every hundred females in a given population.
    • A sex ratio of 100 indicates an equal number of males and females in the population.
    • A number greater than 100, indicates there are more males than females; if it is less than 100, there are more females than males.
theories of population growth
Theories of Population Growth
  • The Malthusian Perspective
  • The Marxist Perspective
  • The Neo-Malthusian Perspective
  • Demographic Transition Theory
  • Gemeinschaft Societies
malthusian perspective
Malthusian Perspective
  • If left unchecked, the population would exceed the available food supply.
  • Population would increase in a geometric progression (2, 4, 8, …) .
  • The food supply would increase by an arithmetic progression (1, 2, 3, 4 . . .).
marxist perspective
Marxist Perspective
  • Using technology, food can be produced for a growing population.
  • Overpopulation will lead to the eventual destruction of capitalism.
  • Workers will become dissatisfied and develop class-consciousness because of shared oppression.
the neo malthusian perspective
The Neo-Malthusian Perspective
  • Overpopulation and rapid population growth result in global environmental problems.
  • People should be encouraging zero population growth.
demographic transition theory
Demographic Transition Theory
  • Stage 1: Preindustrial Societies - little population growth, high birth rates offset by high death rates.
  • Stage 2: Early Industrialization - significant population growth, birth rates are relatively high, death rates decline.
demographic transition theory18
Demographic Transition Theory
  • Stage 3: Advanced Industrialization and Urbanization - very little population growth occurs, birth rates and death rates are low.
  • Stage 4: Postindustrialization - birth rates decline as more women are employed and raising children becomes more costly.
development of a city
Development of a City

Three preconditions:

  • A favorable physical environment.
  • An advanced technology that could produce a social surplus.
  • A well-developed political system to provide social stability to the economic system.
gender regimes in cities
Gender Regimes in Cities

Different cities have different gender regimes:

  • How women and men should think, feel, and act.
  • How access to positions and control of resources should be managed.
  • How women and men should relate to each other.
simmel s view of city life
Simmel's View of City Life
  • Urban life is stimulating; it shapes people's thoughts and actions.
  • Many urban residents avoid emotional involvement with each other and try to ignore events taking place around them.
  • Urban living can be liberating - people have opportunities for individualism and autonomy.
gans s urban villagers
Gans's Urban Villagers

Five categories of urban dwellers:

  • Cosmopolites are students, artists, writers, musicians, and professionals who live in the city to be close to its cultural facilities.
  • Unmarried people and childless couples live in the city to be close to work and entertainment.
gans s urban villagers29
Gans's Urban Villagers
  • Ethnic villagers live in ethnically segregated neighborhoods.
  • The deprived are poor people with dim future prospects.
  • The trapped are downwardly mobile persons, older persons, and addicts who cannot escape the city.
  • Since World War II, the U.S. population has shifted as people moved to the suburbs.
  • Suburbanites rely on urban centers for employment but pay property taxes to suburban governments and school districts.