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Phylum Chordata. Phylum Chordata. They have 4 main characteristics that they must have at some time in their development. dorsal, hollow nerve cord notochord- long supporting rod runs near nerve cord pharyngeal pouches- paired structures in the throat region

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Phylum Chordata

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phylum chordata2
Phylum Chordata

They have 4 main characteristics that they must have at some time in their development.

dorsal, hollow nerve cord

notochord- long supporting rod runs near nerve cord

pharyngeal pouches- paired structures in the throat region

a tail that extends beyond the anus

sub phylum vertebrata
Sub-Phylum Vertebrata
  • A chordate that has a strong supporting structure – Vertebral Column or Backbone.
  • Dorsal hollow nerve cord -aka Spinal cord
  • The front of the spinal cord grows into the brain
  • Backbone made of individual segments called vertebrae.
  • Endoskeleton-supports and protects the animals body.
  • Major groups-Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, and Mammals
  • Aquatic vertebrates
    • fresh and marine waters
  • Fish were the first vertebrates to evolve
    • About 510 million years ago
        • Not like the fish we see today.
  • Characteristics (there are some exceptions)
    • Paired fins -movement
    • Scales –protection
    • Gills –gas exchange
    • Ectotherms
  • Three groups of fish
    • Agnathans
      • Jawless fishes (Lampreys and Hagfish)
      • Lack true teeth and jaws
    • Chondrichthyes
      • Cartilaginous fishes (Sharks, rays, etc.)
      • Skeletons are built entirely of cartilage, not bone.
    • Osteichthyes
      • Bony fishes
      • Skeletons are made of hard, calcified tissue called bone.
  • Feeding
      • Herbivores, carnivores, parasites, filter feeders, and detritus feeders.
      • They have a 2-opening digestive track with:
        • Mouth, esophagus, stomach, pyloric ceca, intestine, anus, also have a liver, and pancreas
  • Respiration
      • Most fishes exchange gas through gills located on either side of the pharynx
      • Water passes over the gills and O2 and CO2 are exchanged between the water and blood
      • A few fishes have “lungs”
  • Circulation
    • Closed circulatory system with a four-chambered heart that pumps blood in a single loop:
      • Heart Gills Body Heart
  • Excretion
    • Waste in the form of ammonia
    • Some wastes diffuse through gills (CO2) and others are removed by the kidneys
  • Response
    • Well-developed nervous system
    • Highly developed sense organs
    • Lateral line system
      • Sensitive receptor system that enables fish to detect gentle currents and vibrations in the water
  • Movement
      • Move by alternately contracting paired sets of muscles on either side of the backbone.
        • Creates a series of S-shaped curves
      • Use of fins for direction
      • Swim bladder –gas-filled organ that helps fish stay afloat.
  • Reproduction
      • External and internal fertilization –depends on the species
  • About 4000 living species
  • First seen about 360 million years ago
  • Gave rise to all other land vertebrates
  • Amphibian means “Double Life”
    • Live in water and on land
      • Must return to water to reproduce
  • Characteristics
    • Lives in water as a larva
    • Lives on land as an adult
    • Moist skin that contains mucus glands
    • Lacks scales and claws
    • Ectotherms
  • Three groups of Amphibians
    • Salamanders
      • Long bodies and tails
      • Most have 4 legs
      • Carnivores
      • Found in moist woods
        • Tunnel under rocks and rotting logs
      • some keep their gills
    • Frogs and Toads
      • They can jump
      • Frogs have longer legs than toads
      • Frogs found more in water areas and toads in moist woods and deserts
      • Adults lack tails
    • Caecilians
      • Legless animals that live in water or moist soil
      • Feed on small invertebrates
  • Feeding
    • Tadpoles are filter feeders or herbivores
    • Adults are carnivores
    • Complete 2-opening digestive track
      • Mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, cloaca, also have a liver, gallbladder and pancreas
  • Respiration
    • Larval forms- gas exchange through skin and gills
    • Adults- gas exchange through lungs and skin
    • Salamanders do not have well developed lungs
      • Gas exchange through linings in mouth
  • Circulation
    • Closed circulatory system with a heart that pumps blood in a double loop:
      • Heart Lungs/Skin Heart Body Heart
  • Excretion
    • Kidneys that filter waste from the blood and pass out the cloaca:
        • Kidneys Ureters Urinary bladder Cloaca Outside
  • Response
    • Well developed nervous system and sensory systems
    • Large and moveable eyes
    • Hear through tympanic membranes
      • Membrane vibrates sending sound to the brain
      • Many larva and adult forms have lateral line system to detect water movement
  • Movement
    • Larvae often move like fish “wiggling” their bodies and using their tail
    • Adults use front and back legs for walking, running, jumping
  • Reproduction
    • Internal and external fertilization
    • Shell less eggs
    • Eggs are laid in water—as many as 200
  • About 7000 living species
  • First seen about 350 million years ago
    • More common around 300 million years ago
  • Found all over earth, except very cold places
  • Characteristics
    • Dry, scaly skin
      • The tough skin does not grow, it needs to be shed periodically
    • Lungs
    • Terrestrial eggs
    • Well developed skull
    • Backbone and tail
    • Four limbs (except snakes)
    • Ectotherms
  • Four surviving groups of reptiles
    • Lizards and snakes
      • Lizards
        • Legs, clawed toes, external ears, movable eyelids
      • Snakes
        • Lack limbs
    • Crocodilians
      • Alligators, Crocodiles, etc.
      • Fierce carnivores
      • Only freshwater, except crocodiles that may live in either salt water or freshwater
    • Turtles and tortoises
      • Turtles live in water
      • Tortoises live on land
      • Have a shell that is built into their skeleton
      • Lack teeth—have bony ridges that cover upper and lower jaws
    • Tuatara
      • Found only on a few small islands off of New Zealand
      • Resemble lizards, except they lack external ears, and retain primitive scales
      • Have a “third eye” on top of head….function is still unknown
  • Feeding
    • Herbivores, and carnivores
    • They have a two-opening digestive track
  • Respiration
    • Lungs for respiration
      • Lungs are “spongy” providing more gas exchange than amphibians
  • Circulation
    • Have a closed circulatory system
    • Efficient double-loop
      • Heart lungs heart body heart
    • Have two atria and either one or two ventricles
      • Most reptiles have one ventricle, however crocodiles and alligators have the most developed hearts with two ventricles.
  • Excretion
    • Kidneys filter blood and produce urine
    • Some reptiles have a urinary bladder
    • Urine contains either ammonia or uric acid
  • Response
    • Similar brain to that of an amphibian
      • Except cerebrum and cerebellum are larger compared to the rest of the brain
    • Complex eyes that can see color well
    • Good sense of smell
    • Most have a pair of sensory organs in the roof of the mouth that can detect chemicals
    • Simple ears with external ear drums
    • Some snakes can detect body heat
  • Movement
    • Reptiles with legs have larger and stronger limbs that enable them to walk, run, burrow, swim, or climb
    • Limbs are rotated further under the body allowing them to carry more body weight
    • Legs and feet of many aquatic turtles have developed into flippers
  • Reproduction
    • All reproduce by internal fertilization
      • Male deposits sperm inside the female
    • Most lay eggs that develop out side the body
    • The shell and membranes of the egg help create a protected environment for the embryo to develop with out drying out
      • Called an amniotic egg
  • Nearly 10,000 bird species today
  • Reptile like animals
  • First seen 150 million years ago
    • Archaeopteryx
  • Characteristics
    • Endotherms
      • Maintain a constant body temperature
    • Hollow bones
    • Outer covering of feathers
      • Made mostly of protein
      • Help birds to fly and maintain temp.
    • Two legs that are covered with scales
      • Used for walking or perching
    • Modified front limbs for flying
  • Over 30 different groups
    • Largest group is the Passerines
      • Over 5,000 species
      • Perching birds
      • Larks, sparrows, finches
    • Some other groups
      • Pelicans and their relatives
          • Pelicans, boobies, etc.
      • Parrots
          • Macaws, lovebirds, cockatoos, etc.
      • Birds of prey
          • Condors, hawks, owls, eagles, etc.
      • Cavity-nesting birds
          • Woodpeckers, toucans, etc.
      • Herons and their relatives
          • Storks, spoonbills, cranes, herons, etc.
      • Ostriches and their relatives
          • Ostriches, emus, etc.
  • Feeding
    • The beak is adapted to the type of food they eat.
    • Complete two-opening digestive track from mouth to cloaca
    • Lack teeth
  • Respiration
    • One-way flow of air
      • Allows for constant exposure of the lungs to oxygen-rich air
    • Have air sacs in the body cavity and bones
  • Circulation
    • Closed circulatory system with a double loop system
    • Four-chambered heart
      • Two atria and two ventricles
    • Complete separation of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood
  • Excretion
    • Similar to reptiles
    • Nitrogenous waste is removed from blood by the kidney, converted to uric acid and deposited in the cloaca
    • Most water is reabsorbed in the cloaca leaving uric acid crystals in a white pasty form
  • Response
    • Well developed sense organs
      • Well developed eyes
      • See color very well
      • Hear very well
    • Brain that can quickly interpret and respond to a lot of incoming signals
  • Movement
    • Some birds cannot fly
      • They walk, run, or swim
    • Large chest muscles that aid in flying
  • Reproduction
    • Both male and female reproductive tracks open into the cloaca
    • Organs often shrink in size when not breeding
    • Amniotic eggs
      • Similar to reptiles, but have a hard outer shell
  • Nearly 4500 species today
  • First seen 220 million years ago
  • Characteristics
    • Endotherms
      • Maintain a constant body temperature
    • Have hair
    • Nourish their young with milk
    • Breath air
    • Four-chambered heart
  • Three main groups of mammals
    • Differ in means of reproduction and development
      • Monotremes
        • Three species exist (duckbill platypus, and two species spiny ant eaters)
        • Lay eggs
        • Have cloaca
      • Marsupials
        • Bear live young that complete their development in a pouch
        • Kangaroos, koalas, wombats
      • Placentals
        • Nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and wastes are exchanged between embryo and mother through the placenta
        • Humans, dogs, cats, elephants, etc…
  • Feeding
    • As mammals evolved, the form and function of their jaws and teeth became adapted to eat different types of food
    • Herbivores
      • Jaws move from side to side
    • Carnivores
      • Jaws move up and down
  • Respiration
    • Lungs
    • Diaphragm
      • Muscle that pulls the bottom of the chest cavity downward which increases volume
  • Circulation
    • Closed, double-loop circulatory system
    • Four-chambered heart
  • Excretion
    • Highly developed kidneys that extract nitrogenous waste from the blood in the form of urea
    • Urea, with other wastes, and water combine to form urine (Pee)
      • Urine is stored in a urinary bladder until it is eliminated
  • Response
    • Have the most highly developed brain of any other animal
    • Highly developed senses
      • Taste
      • Smell
      • Touch
      • Hearing
      • Sight
  • Movement
    • Evolved a variety of adaptations that aid in movement:
      • Backbone that flexes both vertically and side to side
      • Shoulders and pelvic bones became more streamlined and flexible
    • Allows them to:
      • Run, walk, climb, burrow, hop, pounce, swing, fly, leap, and swim
  • Reproduction
    • Internal fertilization
      • Males deposit sperm inside the female reproductive track
    • Three types of development and birth
      • Monotremes, Marsupials, and Placentals
    • Young depend on mother for food and protecting