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Phylum Chordata. Phylum Chordata. Includes 5 Classes Fish Amphibians Reptiles Birds Mammals. Fish. Habitat : nearly every aquatic environment Respiration : use gills to breathe Circulation : 2 chambered heart Reproduction : sexual (mostly external)

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phylum chordata1
Phylum Chordata

Includes 5 Classes

  • Fish
  • Amphibians
  • Reptiles
  • Birds
  • Mammals
  • Habitat: nearly every aquatic environment
  • Respiration: use gills to breathe
  • Circulation: 2 chambered heart
  • Reproduction: sexual (mostly external)
  • Nervous System: lateral line system that can detect movement
  • 3 Major Types of Fish
    • Jawless Fish
    • Cartilaginous Fish (chondricthes)
    • Bony Fish (osteicthes)
  • Examples: frogs, salamanders, toads
  • Habitat: live on land and water
  • Respiration: lungs in adults, gills in tadpoles, but mostly through the moist skin
  • Reproduction: External reproduction

(water needed to transport sperm and

eggs must be kept moist)

Circulation: 3 chambered heart (mixing)

One chamber gets oxygen-rich blood from the lungs and skin

One gets oxygen-poor blood form the rest of the body

Both of those chambers collect in a third chamber that pumps a mix of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood to the lungs, skin and body

Temperature Regulation: Ectotherms, variable body temperature – gets heat from outside source

Metamorphosis – eggs, tadpoles, adult

Tadpoles – fins, gills, 2-chambered heart

Adult – legs, lungs, 3-chambered heart

Examples: snakes, crocodiles, turtle, lizards

Habitat: Land mostly

Respiration: No exchange thru skin bc it is scaly MUST use lungs

Circulation: most have 3 chambered heart

Obtain food: claws, legs directly under body makes running easier

Temp Regulation: ectotherms

Reproduction: Internal fertilization and can lay eggs on land due to the evolution of the amniotic eggReptiles
amniotic egg
Amnion: fluid that cushions embryo

Shell: leathery shell

Yolk: food source for embryo

Allantois: wastes are excreted into this

Chorion: allows gas exchange

Egg tooth: horny tooth that helps hatch the egg

Amniotic Egg
  • Examples: pelican, penguin, blue jay
  • Respiration: lungs and air sacs for extra oxygen for flight
  • Temp Regulation: Endotherm (internally regulates body temp so it is constant)
  • Reproduction: internal fertilization and lay amniotic egg with a hard shell, must incubate eggs
  • Characteristics to Fly: hollow bones for flight, feathers are lightweight, wings, one urogenital orphus
  • Circulation: 4 chambered heart (one side pumps oxygen-poor blood to lungs the other side pumps oxygen-rich blood to the rest of the body)

Must haves to be a mammal:

  • Hair
  • Mammary glands that secrete milk to nurse young
  • Diaphragm to expand and contract chest cavity to get more oxygen
  • Specialized teeth (ex. Molars, canines, incisors)
  • Can learn!
  • Temp Regulation: Endotherms, maintain fairly constant body temperature
  • Circulation: 4 chambered heart the oxygenated blood is kept separate from the deoxygenated blood
  • Respiration: Diaphragm – sheet of muscle located beneath the lungs that separates the chest cavity from the abdominal cavity
  • Why is HAIR important?
    • Insulation
    • Waterproofing
    • Conserves body heat
    • Mammals cool off by panting and sweating

Mammals are classified into 3 groups based on their method of reproduction

  • Placental Mammals
  • Marsupials
  • Monotremes
placental mammals
Placental Mammals
  • Carries baby in the mother’s uterus until development is almost complete
  • Placenta provides food for the baby, allows gas exchange, and removes waste
  • 95% of mammals are placental
  • After a baby has grown to a certain size, the mom carries the baby inside a pouch made of skin and hair on the outside of the mom’s body
  • Most are found in Australia
  • Reproduces by laying eggs
  • Found only in Australia, Tasmania, and New Guinea
  • 3 species of monotremes alive today (platypus, spiny anteater and long-beaked echidna