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    1. Opera

    3. Gluck and Reform Christoph Wilibald Gluck (1714-1787)

    4. Gluck and Reform Christoph Wilibald Gluck (1714-1787) Composed reform operas The music, ballet, and staging must serve the overall drama A reaction to embellishment, spectacle, and showy opera

    5. Gluck and Reform Christoph Wilibald Gluck (1714-1787) Composed reform operas The music, ballet, and staging must serve the overall drama A reaction to embellishment, spectacle, and showy opera Orfeo ed Euridice (1762)

    6. A fearsome cavernous region beyond the river Cocytus, darkened from afar by gloomy smoke lit up by flames which envelops that whole dreaded abode. CORO Chi mai dell'Erebo Fra le caligini, Sull'orme d'Ercole E di Piritoo Conduce il pi? D'orror l'ingombrino Le fiere Eumenidi, E lo spaventino Gli urli di Cerbero, Se un Dio non . (gli Spettri ripigliano le danze, girando intorno ad Orfeo per spaventarlo) CHORUS Who is this who draws near to us through the gloom of Erebus in the footsteps of Hercules and of Pirithous? May the savage Eumenides overwhelm him with horror, and the howls of Cerberus terrify him if he is not a god. They dance, whirling round Orpheus, to frighten him.

    7. A fearsome cavernous region beyond the river Cocytus, darkened from afar by gloomy smoke lit up by flames which envelops that whole dreaded abode. ORFEO Deh! placatevi con me. Furie, Larve, Ombre sdegnose... CORO No... ORFEO Vi renda almen pietose Il mio barbaro dolor. ORPHEUS Oh be merciful to me, ye Furies, ye spectres, ye angry shades! CHORUS No! ORPHEUS May my cruel grief at least earn your pity!

    8. Mozart

    9. Mozart Combined drama, harmony, melody, and counterpoint to produce highly unified operas

    10. Mozart Combined drama, harmony, melody, and counterpoint to produce highly unified operas Helped establish German national opera

    11. Mozart Combined drama, harmony, melody, and counterpoint to produce highly unified operas Helped establish German national opera Le nozze di Figaro Don Giovanni Die Zauberflte (The Magic Flute)

    12. Donna Elvira: Chi l? Don Giovanni: Stelle! che vedo! Leporello: (A Parte) O bella! Donna Elvira! Donna Elvira: Don Giovanni!... Sei qui, mostro, fellon, nido d'ingann! Leporello: (A Parte) Che titoli cruscanti! Manco male che lo conosce bene! Don Giovanni: Via, cara Donna Elvira, calmate questa collera - sentit - lasciatemi parlar. Donna Elvira: Cosa puoi dire, dopo azion s nera? In casa mia entri furtivamente. A forza d'arte, di giuramenti e di lushinghe arrivi a sedurre il cor mio; m'innamori, o crudele! Mi dichiari tua sposa, e poi, mancando della terra e del cielo al santo dritto, con enorme delitto dopo tre d da Burgos t'allontani. M'abbandoni, mi fuggi, e lasci in preda al rimorso ed al pianto, per pena forse che t'amai cotanto! Leporello: (A parte) Pare un libro stampato! Donna Elvira: Who's there? Don Giovanni: Good heavens! What's this? Leporello: (Aside) Oh wonderful! Donna Elvira! Donna Elvira: Don Giovanni! You're here, you monster, you criminal, you pack of lies! Leporello: (Aside) What becoming titles! It's lucky she knows him well. Don Giovanni: Come, my dear Donna Elvira, calm yourself. Llsten. Let me speak. Donna Elvira: What can you say, after so black a deed? You sneaked into my house, and by your artistry, your promises and your sighs you succeeded in seducing me. I fell in love, oh cruel one, and you declared me your bride Then, contrary to all the laws of earth and Heaven, after three days you fled Burgos, abandoned me, a and left me a prey to remorse and to weeping, perhaps as a punishment for having loved you so much! Leporello: (Aside) She sounds like a book!

    13. Don Giovanni: Oh, in quanto a questo, ebbi le mie ragioni. vero? Leporello: vero, e che ragioni forti! Donna Elvira: E quali sono, se non la tua perfidia, la leggerezza tua? Ma il giusto cielo volle ch'io ti trovassi, per far le sue, le mie vendette. Don Giovanni: Eh via, siate pi ragionevole! (Mi pone a cimento costei!) Se non credete a labbro mio, credete a questo galantuomo. Leporello: (A parte) Salvo il vero. Don Giovanni: Via, dille un poco... Leporello: E cosa devo dirle? Don Giovanni: S, s, dille pur tutto. (Parte non visto da Donna Elvira.) Donna Elvira: Ebben, fa presto. Leporello: Madama - veramente - in questo mondo, conciossia cosa quando fosse che il quadro non tondo Don Giovanni: Oh, as for that, I had my reasons, didn't I? Leporello: Oh yes, and what good reasons. Donna Elvira: And what were they, if not your perfidy, your fickleness? But just Heaven wanted me to find you, to carry out its vengeance, and mine. Don Giovanni: Come now, be more reasonable! (This woman is a nuisance!) If you don't believe what I say, then believe this gentleman here. Leporello: (Aside) Anything but the truth. Don Giovanni: Go on, tell her. Leporello: And what shall I tell her? Don Giovanni: Yes, yes, tell her anything. (He sneaks out without being noticed by Donna Elvira) Donna Elvira: All right, but hurry up. Leporello: Madam - really - in this world, when it happens that a square is not a circle . . .

    14. Donna Elvira: Sciagurato! Cos del mio dolor giuoco ti prendi, Ah! Voi - (Verso Don Giovanni) Stelle! L'iniquo fugg! Misera me! Dov'? In qual parte? n, mi trad... Leporello: Eh! lasciate che vada. Egli non merta che di lui ci pensiate. Donna Elvira: Wretch! Thus you mock my grief? Ah, you- (Turning to address Don Giovanni.) Good Heavens! The villain has fled! Alas, where could he be? Where? Leporello: Oh, let him go. He doesn't deserve to be worried over.

    15. Donna Elvira: Il scellerato m'ingann, mi tradi... Leporello: Eh! Consolatevi! non siete voi, non foste, e non sarete n la prima, n I'ultima. Guardate: questo non picciol libro tutto pieno dei nomi di sue belle;ogni villa, ogni borgo, ogni paese testimon di sue donnesche imprese. Donna Elvira: The wretch tricked me, betrayed me . . . Leporello: Calm yourself! You are not, were not and will not be either the first or the last. Look: this fat little book is entirely full of the names of his sweethearts. Each town, each district, each region testifies to his affairs with women.

    16. Leporello: Madamina, il catalogo questo Delle belle che am il padron mio; un catalogo egli che ho fatt'io; Osservate, leggete con me. In Italia seicento e quaranta; In Almagna duecento e trentuna; Cento in Francia, in Turchia novantuna; Ma in Ispagna son gi mille e tre. V'han fra queste contadine, Cameriere, cittadine, V'han contesse, baronesse, Marchesine, principesse. Leporello: My dear lady, this is a list Of the beauties my master has loved, A list which I have compiled. Observe, read along with me. In Italy, six hundred and forty; In Germany, two hundred and thirty-one; A hundred in France; in Turkey, ninety-one; In Spain already one thousand and three. Among these are peasant girls, Maidservants, city girls, Countesses, baronesses, Marchionesses, princesses,

    17. Leporello: E v'han donne d'ogni grado, D'ogni forma, d'ogni et. Nella bionda egli ha l'usanza Di lodar la gentilezza, Nella bruna la costanza, Nella bianca la dolcezza. Vuol d'inverno la grassotta, Vuol d'estate la magrotta; la grande maestosa, La piccina e ognor vezzosa. Delle vecchie fa conquista Pel piacer di porle in lista; Sua passion predominante la giovin principiante. Non si picca - se sia ricca, Se sia brutta, se sia bella; Purch porti la gonnella, Voi sapete quel che fa. (Parte.) Leporello: Women of every rank, Every shape, every age. With blondes it is his habit To praise their kindness; In brunettes, their faithfulness; In the very blond, their sweetness. In winter he likes fat ones. In summer he likes thin ones. He calls the tall ones majestic. The little ones are always charming. He seduces the old ones For the pleasure of adding to the list. His greatest favourite Is the young beginner. It doesn't matter if she's rich, Ugly or beautiful; If she wears a petticoat, You know what he does. (He exits.)

    18. Donna Elvira: In questa forma dunque mi trad il scellerato! questo il premio che quel barbaro rende all'amor mio? Ah! Vendicar vogl'io l'ingannato mio cor. Pria ch'ei mi fugga si ricorra - si vada Io sento in petto sol vendetta parlar, rabbia e dispetto. (Parte.) Donna Elvira: These are the tricks the villain has used to betray me; is this the reward the barbarian returns for my love? Ah, I must get revenge for my deceived heart: before he escapes - I'll seek- I'll go - I hear only blood revenge speaking within me, only fury and hate. (Exit.)

    19. DON GIOVANNI e LEPORELLO: Che grido questo mai? DON GIOVANNI: Va a veder che cosa stato. (Leporello esce.) LEPORELLO: Ah! DON GIOVANNI: Che grido indiavolato! Leporello, che cos'? LEPORELLO (entra spaventato e chiude l'uscio): Ah, signor, per carit! Non andate fuor di qua! L'uom di sasso, l'uomo bianco, Ah padrone! Io gelo, io manco. Se vedeste che figura, se sentiste come fa Ta! Ta! Ta! Ta! DON GIOVANNI: Non capisco niente affatto. Tu sei matto in verit. DON GIOVANNI and LEPORELLO A scream, what can have happen'd? DON GIOVANNI Go and see, go and see, what is the matter. LEPORELLO goes, and when off the stage cries out Ah! DON GIOVANNI What ever means this clatter? Leporello art thou mad? LEPORELLO Oh, good Sir! For heav'n sake, Not a step do that way take, Leporello returns dismayed, and shuts the door White and stony, he's behind me, Oh good master, I'm fainting, don't mind me, If you saw his marble features, If you heard him nearer draw, Ta, ta, ta, ta. DON GIOVANNI I believe thou art demented. One could scare thee with a straw! .

    20. (Si batte alla porta.) LEPORELLO: Ah sentite! DON GIOVANNI: Qualcun batte! Apri! LEPORELLO (tremando): Io tremo! DON GIOVANNI: Apri, dico! LEPORELLO: Ah! DON GIOVANNI: Per togliermi d'intrico Ad aprir io stesso andr. (Prende il lume e la spada sguainata e va ad aprire.) LEPORELLO: (Non vo' pi veder l'amico Pian pianin m'asconder.) Knocking heard at the door. LEPORELLO Hark! He's coming! DON GIOVANNI Some one's knocking Open. LEPORELLO trembling I dare not! DON GIOVANNI Go this instant! LEPORELLO Ah! DON GIOVANNI Coward, if I would be enlightened, I must go myself and see, I'll go and see. takes a light and goes to open the door LEPORELLO Oh, to death I sure am frightened, Here I'll hide where none can see. Leporello hides under the table. .

    21. LA STATUA: Don Giovanni, a cenar teco M'invitasti e son venuto! DON GIOVANNI: Non l'avrei giammai creduto; Ma far quel che potr. Leporello, un altra cena Fa che subito si porti! LEPORELLO (facendo capolino di sotto alla tavola): Ah padron! Siam tutti morti. DON GIOVANNI (tirandolo fuori): Vanne dico! LA STATUA Ferma un po'! Non si pasce di cibo mortale chi si pasce di cibo celeste; Altra cure pi gravi di queste, Altra brama quaggi mi guid! LEPORELLO: (La terzana d'avere mi sembra E le membra fermar pi non so.) THE COMMANDANT Don Giovanni! Be thee invited, Here behold me, as thou'st directed. DON GIOVANNI Truly I did not expect it, But anew I'll sup with thee, Leporello, serve the table, For my guest another cover! LEPORELLO puts his head out from under the table Sir, be still, say no more! DON GIOVANNI Go, directly! Leporello rises as if to obey. THE COMMANDANT No need of that, Earthly food he no longer desireth, Who of heavenly food hath partaken, Cast away from thee now all such trifling, Heed the sentence I hither have brought. LEPORELLO Sure a fit of the ague hath seiz'd me, Of all motion bereft, I'm distraught!

    22. DON GIOVANNI: (Parla dunque! Che chiedi! Che vuoi? LA STATUA: Parlo; ascolta! Pi tempo non ho! DON GIOVANNI: Parla, parla, ascoltandoti sto. LA STATUA: Tu m'invitasti a cena, Il tuo dover or sai. Rispondimi: verrai tu a cenar meco? LEPORELLO (da lontano, sempre tremando): Oib; tempo non ha, scusate. DON GIOVANNI: A torto di viltate Tacciato mai sar. LA STATUA: Risolvi! DON GIOVANNI: Ho gi risolto! DON GIOVANNI Well, what would'st thou? Well, I listen. THE COMMANDANT Silence, and mark me, this hour thou hast sought. DON GIOVANNI Speak then, tell me, of fear know I nought. THE COMMANDANT Thou didst thyself invite me, For that I must requite thee, Then answer me, then answer me, As my guest, when shall I claim thee? LEPORELLO standing far off, trembling Say no, say no; He is engag'd, excuse him. DON GIOVANNI Of fear none shall accuse me, To none will I succumb! THE COMMANDANT Determine! DON GIOVANNI I have determined...

    23. LA STATUA: Verrai? LEPORELLO (a Don Giovanni): Dite di no! DON GIOVANNI: Ho fermo il cuore in petto: Non ho timor: verr! LA STATUA: Dammi la mano in pegno! DON GIOVANNI Eccola! Ohim! LA STATUA: Cos'hai? DON GIOVANNI: Che gelo questo mai? LA STATUA: Pentiti, cangia vita l'ultimo momento! THE COMMANDANT Thou'lt come, then? LEPORELLO Say that you can't, that you can't. DON GIOVANNI My heart is firm within me, I have no fear, I'll come. THE COMMANDANT Give me thy hand in token! DON GIOVANNI Take it then. Ah, me! THE COMMANDANT What is't? DON GIOVANNI What deadly chill is this! THE COMMANDANT Turn thee, ere heav'n hath doom'd thee, There's time yet for repentance.

    24. DON GIOVANNI (vuol sciogliersi, ma invano): No, no, ch'io non mi pento, Vanne lontan da me! LA STATUA: Pentiti, scellerato! DON GIOVANNI: No, vecchio infatuato! LA STATUA: Pentiti! DON GIOVANNI: No! LA STATUA: S! DON GIOVANNI: No! LA STATUA: Ah! tempo pi non v'! DON GIOVANNI vainly tries to free himself For me there's no repentance, Vanish thou from my sight! THE COMMANDANT Dread then, the wrath eternal. DON GIOVANNI Away, thou spectre infernal! THE COMMANDANT Yes, repent! DON GIOVANNI No! THE COMMANDANT Yes, repent! DON GIOVANNI No! THE COMMANDANT Yes! Now must my soul take flight! Exit. Flames appear in all directions, the earth trembles.

    25. Bel Canto Opera

    26. Bel Canto Opera Beautiful singing

    27. Bel Canto Opera Beautiful singing A style of singing originated in Italy

    28. Bel Canto Opera Beautiful singing A style of singing originated in Italy Evenness, flexibility, very legato

    29. Bel Canto Opera Beautiful singing A style of singing originated in Italy Evenness, flexibility, very legato Lighter, lyric sound

    30. Bel Canto Opera Beautiful singing A style of singing originated in Italy Evenness, flexibility, very legato Lighter, lyric sound Composers: Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini

    31. Bel Canto Opera Beautiful singing A style of singing originated in Italy Evenness, flexibility, very legato Lighter, lyric sound Composers: Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini Much ornamentation, many scales and cadenzas

    32. Bel Canto Opera Beautiful singing A style of singing originated in Italy Evenness, flexibility, very legato Lighter, lyric sound Composers: Rossini, Donizetti, Bellini Much ornamentation, many scales and cadenzas From approximately 1805-1830

    33. While sleepwalking, Amina prays for Elvino and then sings her sorrow. She remembers the engagement ring that he took from her when he believed she was unfaithful to him.

    34. Giuseppi Verdi (1813-1901)

    35. Giuseppi Verdi (1813-1901) Composed approximately 30 operas

    36. Giuseppi Verdi (1813-1901) Composed approximately 30 operas Many are standards of the repertoire

    37. Giuseppi Verdi (1813-1901) Composed approximately 30 operas Many are standards of the repertoire After composing his first successful opera, he had a number of personal trials his next opera was not well received, and he vowed to give up music

    38. Giuseppi Verdi (1813-1901) Composed approximately 30 operas Many are standards of the repertoire After composing his first successful opera, he had a number of personal trials his next opera was not well received, and he vowed to give up music A member of the management of La Scala opera house forced a libretto on him it became Nabucco, a very successful opera

    39. Composed approximately 30 operas Many are standards of the repertoire After composing his first successful opera, he had a number of personal trials his next opera was not well received, and he vowed to give up music A member of the management of La Scala opera house forced a libretto on him it became Nabucco, a very successful opera Verdi became linked with Italian nationalism

    40. Chorus of the Hebrew Slaves Va, pensiero sull'ali dorate Va, ti posa sui clivi, sui colli, Ove olezzano tepide e molli L'aure dolci del suolo natal! Del Giordano le rive saluta, Di Sione le torri atterrate... O, mia patria s bella e perduta! O membranza s cara e fatal! Arpa d'or dei fatidici vati, Perch muta dal salice pendi? Le memorie nel petto raccendi Ci favella del tempo che fu! O simile di Solima ai fati Traggi un suono di crudo lamento O t'ispiri il Signore un concento Che ne infonda al patire virt. Go, thought, on golden wings Go, alight on the cliffs, on the hills, Where there are wafting the warm and gentle Sweet breezes of our native land. Greet the Jordan's banks The fallen towers of Zion.... Oh, my fatherlandso beautiful and so lost! Oh, remembrance so dear, and fatal. Harp of gold of the prophet bards, Why do you hang silent, from the willow? Rekindle the memories in our breast That speak to us of the time that was. O [harp], like Solomon to the fates, Draw a sound of harsh lamentation May the Lord inspire in thee an accord Which might infuse our suffering with virt.

    41. Verdis Requiem

    42. Verdis Requiem When Rossini died in 1868, Verdi suggested a number of Italian composers should contribute to a Requiem

    43. Verdis Requiem When Rossini died in 1868, Verdi suggested a number of Italian composers should contribute to a Requiem 13 composers completed a Messa per Rossini in time for the 1-year anniversary, but it was never performed (until 1988)

    44. Verdis Requiem When Rossini died in 1868, Verdi suggested a number of Italian composers should contribute to a Requiem 13 composers completed a Messa per Rossini in time for the 1-year anniversary, but it was never performed (until 1988) Verdi was very upset about this

    45. Verdis Requiem When Rossini died in 1868, Verdi suggested a number of Italian composers should contribute to a Requiem 13 composers completed a Messa per Rossini in time for the 1-year anniversary, but it was never performed (until 1988) Verdi was very upset about this In 1873, Italian writer Manzoni died, and Verdi resolved to write a Requiem it was premiered on the first anniversary

    46. Richard Wagner (1813-1883)

    47. Richard Wagner (1813-1883) Revolutionary German composer, conductor, and writer

    48. Richard Wagner (1813-1883) Revolutionary German composer, conductor, and writer Became involved in the German nationalist movement; When an attempted revolution failed, he went into exile

    49. Richard Wagner (1813-1883) Revolutionary German composer, conductor, and writer Became involved in the German nationalist movement; When an attempted revolution failed, he went into exile Wrote essays on opera, aesthetics, and Jews in music

    50. Richard Wagner (1813-1883) Revolutionary German composer, conductor, and writer Became involved in the German nationalist movement; When an attempted revolution failed, he went into exile Wrote essays on opera, aesthetics, and Jews in music Built his own opera house in Bayreuth

    51. Innovations

    52. Innovations Wagner was one of the only opera composers who wrote his own libretti

    53. Innovations Wagner was one of the only opera composers who wrote his own libretti He advanced opera through his ideal of Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork) the synthesis of all the arts

    54. Innovations Wagner was one of the only opera composers who wrote his own libretti He advanced opera through his ideal of Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork) the synthesis of all the arts He developed the orchestra pit, as well as the tradition of dimming the lights during an opera

    55. Innovations Wagner was one of the only opera composers who wrote his own libretti He advanced opera through his ideal of Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork) the synthesis of all the arts He developed the orchestra pit, as well as the tradition of dimming the lights during an opera He made extensive use of leitmotifs

    56. Innovations Wagner was one of the only opera composers who wrote his own libretti He advanced opera through his ideal of Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork) the synthesis of all the arts He developed the orchestra pit, as well as the tradition of dimming the lights during an opera He made extensive use of leitmotifs He dramatically expanded harmony

    57. The Ring Cycle

    58. The Ring Cycle 4 epic music dramas

    59. The Ring Cycle 4 epic music dramas Intended to be seen on 4 consecutive nights, lasting up to 15 hours

    60. The Ring Cycle 4 epic music dramas Intended to be seen on 4 consecutive nights, lasting up to 15 hours The shortest opera is around 2 hours; the longest runs up to 5!

    61. The Ring Cycle 4 epic music dramas Intended to be seen on 4 consecutive nights, lasting up to 15 hours The shortest opera is around 2 hours; the longest runs up to 5! Written for a huge orchestra, with new instruments the Wagner tuba, bass trumpet, and contrabass trombone

    62. The Ring Cycle 4 epic music dramas Intended to be seen on 4 consecutive nights, lasting up to 15 hours The shortest opera is around 2 hours; the longest runs up to 5! Written for a huge orchestra, with new instruments the Wagner tuba, bass trumpet, and contrabass trombone Story based on Norse and German mythology

    63. The Ring Cycle Das Rheingold (1854) Die Walkre (1856) Siegfried (1871) Gtterdmmerung (1874)

    64. Non-Ring Operas

    65. Non-Ring Operas Der fliegende Hllander (The Flying Dutchman), Tannhuser, Lohengrin

    66. Non-Ring Operas Der fliegende Hllander (The Flying Dutchman), Tannhuser, Lohengrin Die Meistersinger von Nrnberg Wagners only comedy still performed, and one of his longest operas

    67. Non-Ring Operas Der fliegende Hllander (The Flying Dutchman), Tannhuser, Lohengrin Die Meistersinger von Nrnberg Wagners only comedy still performed, and one of his longest operas Tristan und Isolde possibly Wagners greatest single opera

    68. Non-Ring Operas Der fliegende Hllander (The Flying Dutchman), Tannhuser, Lohengrin Die Meistersinger von Nrnberg Wagners only comedy still performed, and one of his longest operas Tristan und Isolde possibly Wagners greatest single opera Parsifal composed for the opening of Bayreuth in 1876

    69. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924)

    70. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) Influenced by both Verdi and Wagner

    71. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) Influenced by both Verdi and Wagner Some have claimed his operas lacked seriousness in favor of popular appeal

    72. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) Influenced by both Verdi and Wagner Some have claimed his operas lacked seriousness in favor of popular appeal He was celebrated for his melodic gift

    73. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) Influenced by both Verdi and Wagner Some have claimed his operas lacked seriousness in favor of popular appeal He was celebrated for his melodic gift With Tosca, Puccini began writing in the verismo style the technique of realism in operas

    74. Giacomo Puccini (1858-1924) Influenced by both Verdi and Wagner Some have claimed his operas lacked seriousness in favor of popular appeal He was celebrated for his melodic gift With Tosca, Puccini began writing in the verismo style the technique of realism in operas La Boheme (1896) is one of the most beloved operas, and most romantic

    75. Nessun Dorma - Turandot Nessun dorma, nessun dorma ... Tu pure, o Principessa, Nella tua fredda stanza, Guardi le stelle Che tremano d'amore E di speranza. Ma il mio mistero chiuso in me, Il nome mio nessun sapr, no, no, Sulla tua bocca lo dir Quando la luce splender, Ed il mio bacio scioglier il silenzio Che ti fa mia. No one sleeps, no one sleeps... Even you, o Princess, In your cold room, Watch the stars, That tremble with love And with hope. But my secret is hidden within me; My name no one shall know, no, no, On your mouth I will speak it When the light shines, And my kiss will dissolve the silence That makes you mine.

    76. Nessun Dorma - Turandot Chorus Il nome suo nessun sapr E noi dovrem, ahim, morir. The Prince Dilegua, o notte! Tramontate, stelle! All'alba vincer! No one will know his name And we must, alas, die. Vanish, o night! Set, stars! At daybreak, I shall conquer!

    77. And finally . . .

    78. Carmen (1875)

    79. Carmen (1875) French opera by George Bizet

    80. Carmen (1875) French opera by George Bizet Set in Spain, it is the story of a fiery Gypsy who causes all sorts of trouble and heartache

    81. Carmen (1875) French opera by George Bizet Set in Spain, it is the story of a fiery Gypsy who causes all sorts of trouble and heartache It was considered a failure, often labeled superficial, and the subject matter was immoral

    82. Carmen (1875) French opera by George Bizet Set in Spain, it is the story of a fiery Gypsy who causes all sorts of trouble and heartache It was considered a failure, often labeled superficial, and the subject matter was immoral Today it is one of the most popular operas in the world, and much of the music is very well known

    83. Carmen: Prelude

    84. Habanera L'amour est un oiseau rebelle que nul ne peut apprivoiser, et c'est bien en vain qu'on l'appelle, s'il lui convient de refuser. Rien n'y fait, menace ou prire, l'un parle bien, l'autre se tait: Et c'est l'autre que je prfre, Il n'a rien dit mais il me plat. L'amour! L'amour! L'amour! L'amour! Love is a rebellious bird that nobody can tame, and you call him quite in vain if it suits him not to come. Nothing helps, neither threat nor prayer. One man talks well, the other's mum; it's the other one that I prefer. He's silent but I like his looks. Love! Love! Love! Love!

    85. Habanera L'amour est enfant de Bohme, il n'a jamais, jamais connu de loi; si tu ne m'aimes pas, je t'aime: si je t'aime, prends garde toi! (x2) Love is a Bohemian child, it has never, ever, known the law; love me not, then I love you; if I love you, you'd best beware! etc.

    86. Habanera L'oiseau que tu croyais surprendre battit de l'aile et s'envola ... l'amour est loin, tu peux l'attendre; tu ne l'attends plus, il est l! Tout autour de toi, vite, vite, il vient, s'en va, puis il revient... tu crois le tenir, il t'vite, tu crois l'viter, il te tient. L'amour! L'amour! L'amour! L'amour! The bird you thought you had caught beat its wings and flew away ... love stays away, you wait and wait; when least expected, there it is! All around you, swift, so swift, it comes, it goes, and then returns ... you think you hold it fast, it flees you think you're free, it holds you fast. Love! Love! Love! Love!

    87. Habanera L'amour est enfant de Bohme, il n'a jamais, jamais connu de loi; si tu ne m'aimes pas, je t'aime: si je t'aime, prends garde toi! (x2) Love is a Bohemian child, it has never, ever, known the law; love me not, then I love you; if I love you, you'd best beware! etc.