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Photograph: Richa Sharma Ocean Production World patterns of primary production Dominant communities of the North Pacific North American coastal communities Gross Primary Production in Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems Smith, S. and Hollibaugh, J., Rev. Geophys., 31, 75, 1993.

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ocean production
Ocean Production
  • World patterns of primary production
  • Dominant communities of the North Pacific
  • North American coastal communities
gross primary production in marine and terrestrial ecosystems
Gross Primary Production in Marine and Terrestrial Ecosystems

Smith, S. and Hollibaugh, J., Rev. Geophys., 31, 75, 1993.

global primary production in marine ecosystems
Global Primary Production in Marine Ecosystems

Smith, S. and Hollibaugh, J., Rev. Geophys., 31, 75, 1993.

slide8

Annual marine primary production in the world’s oceans in relation to the area where production occurs (Longhurst et al. 1995)

Most of the ocean area is very unproductive; only a small fraction is highly productive

slide9

Depth (km)

0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35

Percentage of ocean area

The proportion of ocean area by depth. The mean depth of the oceans is 3.7 km and they cover 72% of the globe.(Sunderman 1986)

Thus the great majority of the ocean is very deep

slide11

Depth

Relationship between depth, phytoplankton photosynthesis and phytoplankton respiration

Phytoplankton need light, nutrients and carbon dioxide to grow (nitrates, phosphates and iron can limit primary production).

Photosynthesis depends strongly on light, which declines with depth. Above the compensation depth, more carbon is fixed by photosynthesis than is lost in respiration. Below that depth (which can be as deep as 100 m or as shallow as 1-2 m) more carbon is lost than is fixed. Below the critical depth there is insufficient light for phytoplankton.

From Sverdrup (1953)

Phytoplankton photosynthesis

compensation depth

Phytoplankton respiration

critical depth

slide12

Primary production:

  • Enrichment
  • Retention
  • Concentration
slide13
Chlorophyll production, September 1998
  • Wide band of production in north
  • Southern blooms just beginning
  • Notice upwelling along west coasts of continents

(Picture courtesy of NASA SEAWIFS program)

seasonal cycles of primary and secondary production vary among regions

phytoplankton

zooplankton

Arctic Ocean

Biomass

Tropical Pacific

Biomass

Temperate North Atlantic

Biomass

J F M A M J J A S O N D

Month

Seasonal cycles of primary and secondary production vary among regions

Cushing 1975

slide15

0 5 10 15 20 25

Fish and squid production (g/ m sq/ year)

0 50 100 150 200 250 300

Phytoplankton production (g C/m sq/ yr)

Relationship between annual phytoplankton production and the production of carnivorous fishes in open ocean and coastal environments

Iverson (1990, in Jennings et al.)

NW Atlantic shelf

Baltic and nearby seas

Open ocean sites

catches along 155 o w july 15 30 1984
Catches along 155oW, July 15-30 1984

Subarctic Ridge Domain

  • salmonids, salmon shark, spiny dogfish

Transition Domain

  • nail squid, saury, blue shark, albacore, neon flying squid

Sub-tropic

  • tuna, striped marlin, mackerel, dolphin, yellowtail,
catches of fishes and squids in gill nets along 155 o w by oshoro maru 1984
Catches of fishes and squids in gill nets along 155oW by Oshoro Maru, 1984

Salmonids

Pacific Pomfret

Blue Shark, Albacore, Ommastrephes bartrami

Tuna, Marlin, Shortbill Spearfish, Mackerel, Dolphin, Yellowtail

n = 199

n = 2897

n = 694

n = 3999

dominant epipelagic species in the tropical province
Dominant epipelagic species in the Tropical Province

Wahoo (Acanthocybium solandri)

Flying fish

Yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares)

tropical epipelagic species
Tropical epipelagic species

Swordfish (Xiphias gladius)

Striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax)

Indo-Pacific sailfish (Istiophorus platypterus)

dominant epipelagic species in subtropical province
Dominant epipelagic species in Subtropical Province

Bigeye tuna (Thunnus obesus)

Dolphin (Coryphaena hippurus)

Bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus)

dominant epipelagic species in transition province of north pacific
Dominant epipelagic species in Transition Province of North Pacific

Blue shark (Prionace glauca)

Pacific mackerel (Scomber japanicus)

Albacore (Thunnus alaunga)

Pacific pomfret (Brama japonicus)

Jack mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus)

Saury (Cololabis saira)

slide26

Generalized foodweb in the Transition Province of the North Pacific Ocean

Myctophids: lanternfish, vertically migrating meso-pelagic species

Pteropods and heteropods are planktonic molluscs

slide27

Approximate areas of oceanic domains and prevailing current directions in the Northeast Pacific Ocean (Ware and McFarlane 1989)

ekman flow
Ekman flow

Water velocity decreases and rotates in direction with increasing depth:

The water does not go in the same direction as the wind.

slide30

Summer winds tend to come from the north, causing Ekman transport of water offshore along the surface. This brings colder, nutrient-rich water from along the continental slope to replace it. The strength of this upwelling varies from year to year.

http://pfeg.noaa.gov

dominant species of the coastal upwelling domain off the north american west coast
Dominant species of the Coastal Upwelling Domain off the North American west coast

Pacific hake (Merluccius productus)

Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax)

Pacific mackerel (Scomber japonicus)

Northern anchovy (Engraulis mordax)

concentrations of dominant species in the coastal upwelling domain summer
Concentrations of dominant species in the coastal upwelling domain; summer

Pacific sardine

Pacific hake

dominant species of the coastal downwelling domain off north american west coast
Dominant species of the Coastal Downwelling Domain off North American west coast

Pacific cod (Gadus macrocephalus)

Sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria)

Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis)

Pacific herring (Clupea pallasi)

Walleye pollock (Theragra chalcogramma)

dominant epipelagic fishes in the subarctic province of the north pacific ocean
Dominant epipelagic fishes in the Subarctic Province of the North Pacific Ocean

Salmon shark, Lamna ditropis

Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha)

Sockeye salmon (O. nerka)

primary production for north pacific domains ware and mcfarlane 1989
Primary Production for North Pacific Domains(Ware and McFarlane 1989)

These regions also differ in the size and species composition, seasonal abundance patterns, and depth distributions of phyto- and zooplankton.

biomass and potential yield for north pacific domains
Biomass and potential yield for North Pacific domains

*Does not include pomfret, saury, jack mackerel and albacore tuna

Ware and McFarlane (1989)

slide38

biomass

Biomass (g/m2)

Production (g/m2/year)

0 1 2 3

production

200-600 600-1000 1-2000 2-3000 3-4000 Abyssal Plain

Depth zone

Estimates of production and biomass of demersal fishes at different depths in the eastern North Atlantic
concentrations of dominant species in the coastal upwelling domain summer39
Concentrations of dominant species in the coastal upwelling domain; summer

Pacific makerel

Northern anchovy