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    1. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 1 Environmental Assessment and Conflict-affected areas Michel A. Bouchard, PhD Senior Research Associate, CITET And Fellolw, McGill-UNEP Collaborative Center in EA

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    9. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 9 REPUBLIQUE DEMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO ASSOCIATION NATIONALE POUR LVALUATION ENVIRONNEMENTALE ANEE-RDC ACTES DE LATELIER SUR LES IMPACTS ET LES ENJEUX ENVIRONNEMENTAUX DES CONFLITS ARMS EN RPUBLIQUE DMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO KINSHASA, RDC, 26 - 27 OCTOBRE 2004 Organis par LASSOCIATION NATIONALE POUR LVALUATION ENVIRONNEMENTALE,(ANEE) en Collaboration avec LE SECRTARIAT SOUS RGIONAL POUR LVALUATION ENVIRONNEMENTALE EN AFRIQUE CENTRALE (SEEAC) Centre Bondeko, Commune de Limete, Avenue de lUniversit, KINSHASA, RDC ADRESSE:2634, Avenue KILANGWE, C/LEMBA-BP:20354 Kinshasa 21, Lemba: Tl:00243815103330 E-mail:anee_rdc@yahoo.fr;Fax:001.775.822.7069

    10. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 10 SESSION I: Lvaluation environnementale et les conflits arms Prsident de sance: KASULU, Point focal PNUE BOUCHARD, M.A., (Secrtariat International) Les valuations environnementales et les conflits. Les mthodes et les acquis. Les instruments juridiques internationaux ETIEN, N., (Agence de lEnvironnement de la Cte divoire), Les valuations post-conflits, exemple de la Cte DIvoire KABW, A., (Commission nationale de lnergie) Impacts transfrontaliers lis aux conflits arms: cas de la destruction du barrage de Mozambique DORSOUMA, A. et BOUCHARD, M.A., (Universit Senghor dAlexandrie, et Secrtariat International) Enjeux environnementaux au Darfour

    11. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 11 SESSION II: Impacts environnementaux des conflits en RDC Prsident de sance: Professeur OMEONGA MWANAMBUYI (Coordonnateur Cellule environnement Ministre de lenvironnement) tat des lieux des conflits arms en RDC-: rappel des sources et du droulement des conflits au cours des 5 dernires annes, contexte gographique et mouvements de population MIDI, Marc (coles Catholiques de Kinshasa) Impact des conflits arms sur les systmes scolaires: cas de la RDC NZUZI LELO (Professeur, Universit de Kinshasa) Impacts socio- conomiques et environnementaux dus la guerre en RDC KAGUFA MAYELA, (Chef Lac de lglise de Bukavu) Les consquences de la guerre sur lenvironnement socio- conomique: cas de la province du Sud Kivu SEMEKI, J. (Assistant, Universit de Kinshasa) Impact des conflits arms sur la gestion des ressources naturelles

    12. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 12 SESSION III: Contextes biogographiques et situations ante bellum. Prsident de session: MITI, Institut Gographique du Congo ALONI KOMANDA (Professeur, Universit de Kinshasa) Le contexte biogographique du Katanga: tat de rfrence et tat actuel DJAMBA OMANA, M (Coordonnateur ANEE-Maniema) Le contexte biogographique du Maniema: tat de rfrence et tat actuel MITI (Directeur gnral, Institut Gographique du Congo) Le contexte biogographique du Nord et Sud Kivu: tat de rfrence et tat actuel LUBINI(Professeur, Universit de Kinshasa) Le contexte biogographique de la Province Orientale; tat de rfrence et tat actuel

    13. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 13 SESSION IV: Aires protges et ressources naturelles. Prsident de session. Nicolas Shuku SHUKU ONEMBA, N. (Association Nationale pour lvaluation Environnementale) Impacts des conflits au Kivu et dans Province Orientale sur les Aires Protges et la Biodiversit. BASHIGUE, Madame. (ADG Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature) Gestion des aires protges en priode des conflits arms: expriences de lInstitut congolais pour la conservation de la nature MUAMBA TSHIBASU (Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature) Le maintien des aires protges et de la biodiversit en priode des conflits arms MWEMBO (Directeur de la recherche, Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature) La contamination des sols et des nappes phratiques en priode de conflits arms BOYZIBU Dr (Institut Congolais pour la Conservation de la Nature) Limpact dune dcennie de guerre sur la conservation du patrimoine naturel et le dveloppement

    14. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 14 SESSION V: Rfugis, valuation post-conflit et Reconstruction. Prsident de session: TSHADU NGONDO KIAYA, N. (ISP Gombe) Le problme des rfugis et des populations migrantes: cas des sites de Kiluela et Nikondo au Bas Congo KASULU (Directeur du Dveloppement Durable et point focal PNUE) Une premire valuation post-conflit et des problmes environnementaux lis la reconstruction MUSIBONO (Coordonnateur National de la Cellule Impacts au Haut Commissariat aux Rfugis) Les problmatiques prcises lies aux camps de rfugis MINGA MINGA, D. (Universit de Kinshasa) Le maintien de la paix et la gouvernance environnementale

    15. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 15 CONSORTIUM

    16. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 16 REPUBLIQUE DEMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO Sous le parrainage de Son Excellence Monsieur le Ministre de la Recherche Scientifique et Technologique Me GRARD KAMANDA wa KAMANDA PREMIRE RUNION DE COORDINATION PROJET DVALUATION ENVRONNEMENTALE DES CONFLITS ARMS EN RPUBLIQUE DMOCRATIQUE DU CONGO KINSHASA, RDC, 13 AU 17 DECEMBRE 2004 Centre Bondeko, Commune de Limete Organis par LASSOCIATION NATIONALE POUR LEVALUATION ENVIRONNEMENTALE, (ANE) LE SECRTARIAT RGIONAL POUR LVALUATION ENVIRONNEMENTALE EN AFRIQUE CENTRALE (SEEAC) Avec lappui de la Coopration Franaise

    17. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 17

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    19. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 19

    20. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 20 Orbites Landsat 7

    21. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 21 Landsat 7 - 11 dcembre 2001

    22. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 22

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    24. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 24

    25. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 25

    26. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 26 MOST VISIBLE AND DIRECT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS

    27. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 27 WITH DIRECT ENVIRONMENTAL DAMAGES TO OR AS A RESULT OF

    28. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 28 IDP and RC

    29. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 29 FINANCING THE CONFLICT AND SUPPLYING THE BELLIGERANTS

    30. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 30

    31. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 31 MILITARY TACTICS AND WEAPONRY

    32. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 32 Virunga, 1925 8100 Km,Nord Kivu Mountain Gorillas Gorilla gorilla beringei

    33. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 33 Virunga Park rangers stations destroyed; 75 rangers killed Estimated IDP and R squatting in the park in excess of 50,000 with accompanying 11,000 cattle Mountain gorilla near extinction

    34. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 34

    35. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 35 Virunga Between 7.000 and 10.000 m3 of wood were taken out EVERY DAY FROM THE Parc National de Virunga, near Bukavu in 1994 Leading to deforestation and erosion

    36. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 36 Kahuzi-Biega, 1970 6 000 Km, Sud-Kivu, Presently 90% out of control, deforested in excess of 3 000 hectares 1 kg of elephant meat openly sold for 0,6 to 1,4$ and ivory piece at 3 to 5 $/kg,

    37. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 37

    38. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 38 WHY DO YOU WANT TO DO POST-CONFLICT ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT? 1. TO ASSESS MONETARY VALUE OF DAMAGES AND REQUEST COMPENSATION 2. TO GUIDE AND ASSIST REHABILATION/RECONSTRUCTION 3. TO PREVENT SIMILAR IN CASE OF RECURRENT CONFLICTS

    39. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 39 Typology of Impacts according to phases PRE CONFLICT SYN CONFLICT POST CONFLICT

    40. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 40 http://developpementdurable.revues.org/ document3365.html Dveloppement Durable et Territoire, 2007 Conflits arms et Environnement: Cadre, modalits, mthodes et rle de lvaluation Environnementale BOUCHARD et DORSOUMA

    41. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 41

    42. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 42 DURING THE CONFLICT Not much can be done during the actual conflict phase, but a number of International legal instruments do exist that deal with the Protection of the Environment in war times

    43. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 43 INDIRECT REFERENCES A number of articles of The Hague Conventions (1907), the Constitution Accord of the Nuremberg Tribunal (1945) and of the Geneva Conventions (1949) altogether indirectly forbid and prevent abusive and destructive behaviours towards environment in the conduct of war.

    44. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 44 THE ROOT The Declaration of St. Petersburg of 1869: "the only legitimate object which States should endeavour to accomplish during the war is to weaken the military forces of the enemy...". the should not lead to displacement of populations...".

    45. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 45 More specifically however, three international modern legal instruments directly address the question:

    46. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 46 (1) the Geneva Protocol I (1977) which attempts to prevent Ecological Wars, defined as the use of methods of combat susceptible to lead to disruption of natural equilibrium and irreversible damages to ecosystems

    47. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 47 (2) The United Nations Convention on Environmental Modifications (1976), known as ENMOD which attempts to control or prevent Geophysical War.

    48. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 48 3) Finally, the International Red Cross and Red Crescent Committee Directives (CICR) are intended directly to Military Instruction Manuals of belligerents and they prescribe the Protection of the Environment as part of the Rules of Engagement.

    49. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 49 Protocol 1 Additional to the Geneva Conventions, 1977: Article 35 : Basic rules It is prohibited to employ methods or means of warfare which are intended, or may be expected, to cause widespread, long term and severe damage to the natural environment. Article 55 : Protection of the natural environment 1. Care shall be taken in warfare to protect the natural environment against widespread, long-term and severe damage. This protection includes a prohibition of the use of methods or means of warfare which are intended or may be expected to cause such damage to the natural environment and thereby to prejudice the health or survival of the population. 2. Attacks against the natural environment by way of reprisals are prohibited.

    50. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 50 Convention on the Prohibition of Military or any other Hostile Use of Environmental Modification Techniques (ENMOD),1976 Article 1 Each State Party to this Convention undertakes not to engage in military or any other hostile use of environmental modification techniques having widespread, long-lasting or severe effects as the means of destruction, damage or injury to any other State Party.

    51. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 51 Activities that could violate ENMOD include: Triggering earthquakes Manipulating ozone levels Alteration of the ionosphere Deforestation Provoking flood or drought Use of herbicides

    52. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 52 Activities that could violate ENMOD include: Setting fires Seeding clouds Introduction of invasive species Eradication of species Creation of storms Manipulation of El Nio / La Nia Destruction of crops

    53. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 53 Directives of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Committee (CICR), for Military Instructions Manuals

    54. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 54 CICR To facilitate the instruction and formation of armed forces in international humanitarian law and in laws protecting hte natural environment in warfare To warns againts the use of means and ways damageable to the natural environment without specific military purposes.

    55. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 55 SO, WHY AN INTEREST IN LAW AND WHAT IS THE LINK TO EIA ? BECAUSE Strict applications of those, and eventually prosecution on account of violating those principles and rules should be considered as Mitigation Measures to prevent Environmental Impacts in Armed Conflicts situations.

    56. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 56

    57. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 57 STATE OF THE ART EIA OR SEA MUST BE USED IN POST CONFLICT PHASES FOR THE PURPOSE OF ASSESSMENT AND FOR THE PURPOSE OF PLANNING THE RECONSTRUCTION

    58. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 58 Traditional peace-time science-based Environmental Assessment methods - SHOULD KICK IN AS SOON AS POSSIBLE AFTER THE CONFLICT -SHOULD APPLY IN ALL PEACEKEEPING DEPLOYMENT OPERATIONS

    59. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 59

    60. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 60 MEDIA LAW ENFORCEMENT INFORMATION TO BELLIGERANT AND MONITORING COULD PERHAPS BE USED IN THE SYN-CONFLICT PHASE

    61. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 61 NOVEMBER 06

    62. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 62 BARAKA LAOUFIK

    63. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 63

    64. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 64 Post-Conflict Assessment of Environmental Needs in Iraq HAMOUDA, Faouzi, HANCHI, Belgacem, NAFTI, Rachid, and BOUCHARD**, Michel A., Centre International des Technologies de lEnvironnement de Tunis (CITET); **McGill-UNEP Center in Environmental Assessment, Canada Abstract Post-conflict assessment of Environmental needs in Iraq is based on a survey conducted as a follow up of a Training Workshop in Environmental Assessment for Iraqi officials held in Amman in January 2005 jointly by the Tunis International Center for Environmental Technology (CITET) under its World Bank METAP project and by the UNEP Post-Conflict Assessment Unit. This self evaluation of the needs in Iraq is a clear reflection of the priority of needs in Environmental Governance in post-conflict situation and may possible apply in other post-conflict situations elsewhere. Iraqi environmental officers have identified 39 areas of needs for capacity building, 9 specific areas for environmental technology assistance and guidance and 5 areas of institutional and communication assistance. Needs range mostly for Pollution Prevention and Cleaner Production technologies and for Environmental Assessment Capacity Building, both at the individual and institutional levels. Major preoccupations expressed by the Iraqi environmental officers are targeted at Waste Management, Water Treatment, Land Use planning, preservation of Natural Resources and the establishment of solid programs for training and education in Environmental Sciences and Technology. A common preoccupation is also calling for a full and correct assessment of the environmental state of affairs in the country as a basis of carefully planning the establishment of a full system of environmental governance.

    65. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 65 Effect of an armed conflict on human resources and health systems in Cte dIvoire: Prevention of and care for people with HIV/AIDS N. A. BETSI1, B. G. KOUDOU1,2, G. CISSE 1, A. B. TSCHANNEN1, A. M. PIGNOL3, Y. OUATTARA3, Z. MADOUGOU3, M. TANNER4, & J. UTZINGER4 1Centre Suisse de Recherches Scientiques, Abidjan, Cote dIvoire, 2UFR Biosciences, Universite dAbidjan-Cocody, Abidjan, Cote dIvoire, 3CARE International, Abidjan, Cote dIvoire, and 4Department of Public Health and Epidemiology, Swiss Tropical Institute, Basel, Switzerland Abstract In September 2002, an armed conflict erupted in Co. te d.Ivoire which has since divided the country in the government-held south and the remaining territory controlled by the .Forces Armees des Forces Nouvelles. (FAFN). There is concern that conflict-related population movements, breakdown of health systems and food insecurity could significantly increase the incidence of HIV infections and other sexually-transmitted infections, and hence jeopardize the country.s ability to cope with the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Our objective was to assess and quantify the effect this conflict had on human resources and health systems that provide the backbone for prevention, treatment and care associated with HIV/AIDS. We obtained data through a questionnaire survey targeted at key informants in 24 urban settings in central, north and west Co. te d.Ivoire and reviewed relevant Ministry of Health (MoH) records. We found significant reductions of health staff in the public and private sector along with a collapse of the health system and other public infrastructures, interruption of condom distribution and lack of antiretrovirals. On the other hand, there was a significant increase of non-governmental organizations (NGOs), some of which claim a partial involvement in the combat with HIV/AIDS. The analysis shows the need that these NGOs, in concert with regional and international organizations and United Nations agencies, carry forward HIV/AIDS prevention and care efforts, which ought to be continued through the post-conflict stage and then expanded to comprehensive preventive care, particularly antiretroviral treatment.

    66. Stockholm March 2007 Operating in Conflict and Disaster Areas 66