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Mega Sports Events and Community Health and Wellness: The Case for Investing in Youth . PRESENTER: Dr. Inonge M. Kamungoma-Dada BSc. HB; MBChB; MA; APR. UNFPA South Africa. Email: . Outline . Overview Youth defined Youth and Sports development Demographic Dividend

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mega sports events and community health and wellness the case for investing in youth

Mega Sports Events and Community Health and Wellness:The Case for Investing in Youth


Dr. Inonge M. Kamungoma-Dada


UNFPA South Africa.



  • Overview
  • Youth defined
  • Youth and Sports development
  • Demographic Dividend
  • The Challenges:
        • HIV and AIDS
        • Teenage Pregnancy
        • Gender Issues
        • Urbanization
  • Global context for youth development
        • The MDGs
        • UNFPA
  • Summary


  • Largest generation of adolescents in history-1.5 billion is preparing to enter adulthood.
  • More than half of them: 525 million live on less than 2 dollars a day
  • More than 100 million do not attend school
  • 15 million adolescent girls become mothers everyday
  • Among mothers under the age 20…infant mortality rate average 100 deaths per 1,000 live births


what we know
What we Know..

“Educational and health status of the youth, their readiness to take on adult roles and responsibilities and support received from families, communities, (including through mega sports events) and governments, will determine their future and the future of their countries”,

UNFPA: Investing in adolescents2 health and rights, State of the World report 2003.


youth defined
Youth defined
  • The terms ‘adolescents’, ‘youth’, and ‘young people’ are used differently in various societies
  • Categories are associated with different roles, responsibilities
  • SA National Youth Policy is directed toward young males and females aged from 14 to 35 years
  • Other young age categories in use:

       i) Adolescents: 10-19 years of age

       ii) Youth: 15-25 years of age

iii) Young people: 10-24 years of age


youth and sports development
Youth and Sports development
  • ‘There has been a growing understanding of the role sports can play in changing peoples’ lives for the better –- and those of young people, in particular, Kofi Annan, Olympic Aid Forum, 2002. 
  • Development: adolescent (10-19)
  • Peak performance (18-25)
  • Retirement (30- 35)
      • Skilled labour, savings and investments, employers


youth and sports development1
Youth and sports development..

Sports are an effective instrument for:

  • Building character, tolerance and friendship
  • Delivering and promotion of youth development: reducing poverty
  • Building democracy, conflict resolutions
  • Advocacy to young people on HIV and AIDS, drug abuse and alcoholism etc


youth and mega sports events
Youth and Mega sports events
  • Adolescence is a critical passage in which young people gain life experience through schooling, job training, work experiences, community activities, youth groups, relationships and sports .
  • The Glitz and Glamour of the FIFA Soccer World cup allows youth to dream, hope and achieve!


demographic dividend
‘Demographic Dividend’
  • The concept of ‘Demographic Dividend’ is rooted in the Theory of Demographic Transition.
  • Demographic transition occurs when a country has achieved significant decline in its birth and death rates, from high to low levels
  • In the transition process, only two demographic factors (fertility & mortality) exert influence on population dynamics
  • The population is assumed to be closed to migration


demographic dividend defined
Demographic dividend defined

The ‘demographic dividend’ also called ‘demographic gift’ or

‘bonus’ occurs when a falling birth rate changes the age

distribution of a population:

  • Fertility decline
  • Decline in population growth
  • Decline in the dependency ratio (ratio of persons under age 15 and over 65 to those in the economically productive age group 15-65).

As a result:

  • Less ‘mouths to feed’
  • Up surge in labour force or working population aged 15-49yrs relative to the dependants
  • If workforce is skilled, and adequate jobs available, there is

potential for workforce to increase income, save, invest and thus, stimulate economic growth


demographic dividend1
Demographic Dividend

The ‘demographic dividend’ is delivered through three main mechanisms:

a) labour supply,

b) savings,

c) human capital.

**However, demographic dividend is not automatic.

Countries need to act to capitalize on it through appropriate policies and programmes.

N.B. Must seize the ‘gift’ as it is a limited window of opportunity!


labour supply and the demographic dividend
Labour Supply and the Demographic Dividend
  • The demographic transition affects labor supply through:

a) size of the labour force,

b) increase in the labour force participation incl. women

c) labour productivity.

  • Potential labour force is not an effective labour force
  • Much depends on the extent on investments in education, health, labour force skills and female participation


demographic transition in south africa
Demographic Transition in South Africa
  • Among the white population the transition from high to low fertility has been completed.
  • The Asian and the Coloured population, with TFR of 2.5 in 1998, have almost completed their fertility transition.
  • The black population (79% of the tot.pop), the level of TFR 3.1 in 1998.
  • However, among the non-urban African population, the TFR was 4.0 in 1998.
  • Rather unequal demographic experience among the racial groups - adopt slightly different strategies to tap the dividends of demographic transition in the population.


south africa demographic dividend
South Africa: Demographic Dividend
  • Children under the age of 15 are expected to increase from 11.6 million (40% of total population) in 1980 to 21 million (38%) in 2005.
  • The potential economically active population (age group 15-64) from 17 million (56%) to about 30 million (54%) over this period.
  • Unfortunately, the country may not be able to take advantage of this demographic dividend, as the formal economy is unlikely to be able to provide employment for the new labour market entrants.
  • In 1999, for example, only 8.4% of the new entrants could be accommodated, resulting in widespread unemployment, and unemployment rate stands at 25.5%
  • The African population is still experiencing demographic transition, a comprehensive programme of education and skills development is urgently required to capture the dividend.
  • Sports could play a critical contributory role in development


implications for demographic dividend for south africa
Implications for Demographic Dividend for South Africa
  • South Africa is about to reap from the “Demographic Dividend”
  • Depends on what policies and programmes are in place to capitalize on the large population of young people in the working age Group.
  • Sports, through the FIFA Soccer World Cup presents an opportunity for young people through sports development, employment and entrepreneurship opportunities.


human capital formation policies for youth
Human Capital Formation Policies for Youth

For the demographic dividend to materialize, there must be in place a conducive policy environment, including:

  • Access of youth to reproductive health services and facilities;
  • Reduction in HIV/AIDS prevalence;
  • Reduction in teenage pregnancies;
  • Addressing gender inequalities
  • High quality education and appropriate skills development for the youth.
  • Second chances for out of school youth


the challenges
The challenges
  • “..I am someone who benefited in my youth -- and still does benefit -- from the wonderfully formative experience of sport; and who believes in every child’s right to that experience -- the right to play”, Kofi Annan, 2002.
  • HIV and AIDS
  • Teenage Pregnancy
  • Gender disparities
  • Urbanisation


hiv and aids
  • AIDS now a disease of the young, 15-24 account for half of the 5 million new cases of HIV infection worldwide each year.
  • More than 6,000 young people become infected with HIV – everyday
  • In Sub-Saharan Africa, 63% of those who were HIV positive in 2003 were between the ages of 15-24
  • Feminization of HIV infection with ratios of new female to male infection in young people as high as 8 to 1 (SA)
  • The overwhelming majority of AIDS orphans live in Africa.


teenage pregnancy
Teenage Pregnancy
  • Worldwide every year, 14 million adolescent girls aged 15 to 19 give birth.
  • Highest rates of adolescent fertility are found in sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia.
  • Urban and rural girls aged 15 - 19 from the poorest groups are three times more likely than their better-off peers to give birth in adolescence
  • Girls aged 15 to 19 account for at least one-fourth of the estimated 20 million unsafe abortions performed each year
  • Statistics in South Africa indicate that one in three girls has had a child by age 20


teenage pregnancy and dividend policy
Teenage pregnancy and Dividend Policy
  • Need for a multi-sectoral approach which considers reproductive and sexual health issues as one aspect of personal development,
  • Link to other health, family planning and social services including employment, gender based violence, education and livelihoods programmes.
  • Include positive involvement of boys and men as partners in the struggle for equality and reproductive health
  • Sports presents opportunities for girls


investment in girls education
Investment in Girls’ education
  • Through sports scholarships
  • Educated mothers increase human capital through influence on the health, education and nutrition of their children
  • Contributes to economic growth and reduces poverty leading to improvement on family’s economic prospects
  • Improves reproductive health including HIV prevention



More that half the human population, 3.3 billion people, will be living in urban areas by 2008, growing to 5 billion by 2030.

  • Majority of these people will be poor.
  • About 60% of all urban dwellers will be under the age of 18 by 2030.
  • Proliferation of street children and homeless orphans
  • Investing in young people could bring about a demographic bonus and break the cycle of poverty which their parents are caught in.
  • A rights based approach to poverty reduction will ensure the full participation of youth in policies and plans.
  • Great opportunities provided through sports


the global perspective
The Global perspective
  • International Conference on Population and Development 1994 in Cairo, 179 countries (SA) agreed that:
    • population and development are inextricably linked,
    • empowering girls and women
    • meeting people's needs for education and health, including reproductive health

are necessary for both individual advancement and balanced development.

  • MDGs:
    • reflect a broad consensus in the international community.
    • Most MDGs speak to young people
    • Sports contributes to the attainments of all MDGs esp 1-6


the reality
The reality:
  • Poverty is influenced by and influences population dynamics, such as population growth, age structure, and rural-urban distribution.
  • Population dynamics have a critical impact on a country’s development prospects and specifically on prospects for raising the living standard of the poor and marginalized
  • The global context challenges us to link population and development in a human rights based approach. It is imperative that they are addressed
  • MDGs spells out the agenda, and sets clear targets for us to attain
  • Population and sexual and reproductive health issues, including gender, HIV and AIDS , environment all need to be addressed in development
  • ASRH is an essential component of young people’s ability to become well adjusted, healthy, responsible and productive members of society


unfpa on youth
UNFPA on Youth..


  • Supportive policy making that applies the lens of population structure and poverty dynamics analysis
  • Gender sensitive life skills based SRH Education
  • Sexual and reproductive health services: HIV prevention
  • Young People’s leadership and participation.


  • Lead in the UN family on HIV prevention
  • Scaling up efforts on prevention including attention to gender inequalities and liking HIV to SRH
  • Special focus on young people and vulnerable populations :
        • Information
        • Life skills
        • Youth friendly services
        • A safe and supportive environment
  • Sports and in particular mega sports events provide a perfect opportunity for advocacy and dissemination of key messages to address youth SRH issues.


in summary
In summary
  • Investing in the health and rights of youth will yield large benefits for generations to come.
  • Reducing poverty requires progress in addressing adolescent reproductive needs including HIV prevention, gender and teenage pregnancy.
  • Need to plan to reap from the ‘potential demographic dividend’ from the large number of working age youth
  • Need to put in programmes in place for vulnerable youth
  • Innovative ways to address youth issues, including through sports critical for the development of youth, both for their own personal development and for the future of their countries


food for thought
Food for thought
  • How can FIFA Soccer World Cup 2010 contribute to addressing the issues of youth: their players and potential players: to ensure a healthy, motivated, empowered, skilled pool of soccer stars for the many world cups still to be held?
  • What legacy in terms of SRH will the hosting of the FIFA Soccer World Cup leave for our young people in 2010?


Thank you !

UNFPA- because everyone counts!