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Expectation. Feedback. Do you think the present situation is satisfactory?. No Problems?..?. No Problems!. Any Improvement?..?. P. A. D. C. Make Improvement. Kaizen. (Make it Better). Problem Solving Problem Definition . Problem. In search of Opportunity.

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Presentation Transcript
slide1

Expectation

Feedback

slide4

No Problems!

Any Improvement?..?

slide5

P

A

D

C

Make Improvement

Kaizen

(Make it Better)

Problem Solving

Problem Definition

Problem

In search of Opportunity

slide6

In search of Problem

Problem = Actual - Expected (Planned)

Status Quo

Problem Awareness

Problem Discovery Techniques

3-MU

MURI : Irrationality สิ่งที่ผิดธรรมชาติ ..

MURA : Inconsistency ความไม่สม่ำเสมอ

MUDA : Waste ความสูญเปล่า

slide7

3-MU Checklist

Manpower

Technique

Method

Time

Facilities

Jigs & Tools

Materials

Production Volume

Inventory

Place

Way of Thinking

slide8

Muda: 7 Wastes

Over Production

Excess Inventory

Transportation

Defect / Rework

Ineffective Process

Delay / Idle

Unnecessary Motion

slide9

Problem

Definition

Selecting the Theme

Establishing Goals

Determining a Time Frame

Defining Roles Responsibility

  • Data oriented (Performance / Behavior)
  • Observable
  • Measurable
  • Describe the gap

Problem

Statement

slide10

Problem Solving Process

0. Define the problem

1. Collect data

2. Analyze the data

3. Generate alternatives

4. Evaluate the alternatives

5. Develop an action plan

6. Implement

7. Follow up

slide11

Problem Solving Techniques

Creativity

  • Brain Storming
  • 5W + 1H Questions
  • 7 QC Tools
  • 7 New QC Tools
  • Other Thinking Methods

(Kepner-Tregoe method, Six hats,…)

slide12

Brain Storming

Gossip with the “Discipline”

  • Never criticize any opinion
  • State your own opinion freely
  • Expand other’s ideas & Capitalize on it
  • Evaluate ideas quantitatively (DARE method, Rank method, etc.)
  • Don’t take more than 1 hr.
slide13

DARE Method

To determine the degree of importance for each factors

Procedure:

1. Compare each pair of factors in overlapping fashion

2. At every pairs, assign points to each factor for differences in degree of its importance

3. Calculate the coefficient of importance for each factor

slide15

?

Why should it be done

?

Why does she do it

Why should it be done here

?

Why should it be done this time

?

?

Why is it be done this way

5W + 1H Questions

What is done?

Who does the work?

Where is the work done?

When is the work done?

How is the work done?

slide16

QC Circle

Small Group Activities

TPM Group

7 QC tools

  • Pareto and 80/20 rules
  • Causes and effect diagram
  • Histogram
  • Check-sheet techniques
  • Control Charts
  • Graphic presentation of data: Pie, Bar, Line, Radar, etc.
  • Correlation analysis: Scatter plot
slide17

7 QC tools

  • Most are Numeric data, except …
  • Developed in 1950s
  • Relatively simple and well established
  • Analytic approach

7 New QC tools

  • Verbal data, Unstructured
  • Developed in 1980s
  • Design approach
slide18

7 New QC tools

  • Affinity Diagram
  • Relations Diagram
  • Tree Diagram
  • Matrix Diagram
  • Arrow Diagram
  • Process Decision Program Chart
  • Matrix Data Analysis
slide19

Typical Applications of New 7 tools

R&D (new product, new technology)

Claim Analysis

Productivity Improvement

Improvement of Analytical and diagnostic skills

Production Scheduling

Policy Deployment

Introduction of Automation

Analysis of Market Information

Sales Management

etc...

slide20

Search for Possible Solutions

Intrinsic

knowledge

The Elimination Approacheliminate the basic causes

Systematic Logic

New knowledge / Innovation

slide21

Innovation

Kaizen

management-drive

few champions

investment

technology oriented

closed information

non-incremental

dramatic outcome

Big Changes

my own work

people oriented

low costs

shared information

an Accumulation of Small Changes

Continuous Improvement

slide22

Evaluation of Alternatives

May be not only one correct answer

Consider future difficulties

Actually could be performed? -- try out, lab test, pilot project

Capital concerns

Politics..??

80/20 Deming

slide23

Recommend the actions

Top-Down

Authorized Group

Specialists

Bottom-Up

RINGI Approach

Participative

Empowered / Autonomous Group (Individual)

Standardization

Get Approval

Presentation Report Write Up

slide24

C

D

A

P

Implementation & Follow Up

  • Record & Share Learning
  • QC Presentation
  • Company Database

Remaining Rooms for Improvement

Set (new) standard

Verify the results

Implementation

Develop an action plan

Select problem & Analysis

PDCA Cycle

Shewhart Cycle

Deming Wheel

slide25

D

P

Improvement

C

A

slide26

Degree of Difficulty

What makes Problem Solving Difficult?

Objectives / Values

Fact / Problem Understanding

Tools / Techniques

Prof. Takeshi KAWASE Keio University, Japan

this is a story about 4 people every b ody somebody anybody and nobody
This is a story about 4 people: Everybody, Somebody, Anybody and Nobody.

There was an important job to be done and Everybody was asked to do it. Everybody was sure Somebody would do it. Anybody could have done it, but Nobody did it.

Somebody got angry about that because it’s was Everybody’s job. Everybody thought Anybody could do it. But Nobody realized that Everybody wouldn’t do it.

It ended up thatEverybodyblamed Somebody when actually Nobody asked Anybody.