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Ireland’s Energy Balance Martin Howley Oslo City Group New Delhi 5 th – 7 th February 2007 Overview Why have an energy balance? What type of balance – units, layout etc? Level of detail Data collection & collation Balance construction Industry Disaggregation Transport Disaggregation

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ireland s energy balance

Ireland’s Energy Balance

Martin Howley

Oslo City Group

New Delhi 5th – 7th February 2007

  • Why have an energy balance?
  • What type of balance – units, layout etc?
  • Level of detail
  • Data collection & collation
  • Balance construction
  • Industry Disaggregation
  • Transport Disaggregation
why have an energy balance
Why have an Energy Balance
  • Supply & demand accounting framework
    • Validate flows from supply to consumption
  • Shows several dimensions at once
    • Inputs, outputs, fuels, sectors…
  • Check for consistency between top-down and bottom-up
  • Aggregation of different fuel and energy sources in common energy units
  • Defines boundaries of the economic sectors
    • End-use mapping of energy & activities in the sectors
    • Identify problem areas
macro energy flow





Final Energy




Financial Services





Food, Drink & Tobacco



Space Heating

Water Heating

Electrical Appliances








Macro Energy Flow

Primary Energy Input

what type of balance
What type of Balance
  • Commodity Balance
    • Expressed in physical units – eg tonnes, litres etc
  • Energy Balance
    • Expressed in common energy units – TJ, GWh, tonnes of oil equivalent (toe), etc
  • Common energy units allows for the aggregation of energy quantities from different fuels or energy sources
  • What format?
    • IEA
    • Eurostat
data collection
Data Collection
  • Questionnaires to main suppliers
    • Oil, gas, solid fuels, renewables, electricity generators & suppliers
  • Data collected in physical units
    • tonnes, litres, cubic metres, TJ
  • Collation/aggregation sheets for each fuel or energy type
  • Results in high level aggregation of energy use
  • If possible have more than one data source
    • top-down and bottom up
  • Confidentiality is a major issue
  • Response rates
  • Statistical differences
  • More complete transformation output section desirable
sub sectoral allocation industry
Sub-sectoral allocation - Industry
  • Until recently based on a 1990 disaggregation
  • What information is already being collected or is available?
  • Annual Census of Industrial Production
    • Questions on energy expenditure
    • 1998, 2001 and from 2004 onwards energy expenditure questions by individual fuel
  • Problem is to convert from expenditure to energy quantity
  • Good price data essential
sub sectoral allocation industry18
Sub-sectoral allocation - Industry

Census of Industry Production expenditure by fuel & sub-sector

Price data

Emissions trading data

Derived energy use by fuel and sub-sector

% of derived fuel used by sub-sector

Industry fuel use disaggregated using derived fuel %

sub sectoral allocation industry22
Sub-sectoral allocation - Industry

Sub-sectoral consumption allocated based on pro-rata of spend by the sub-sectors’ on the individual fuels recorded by CSO in the Census of Industrial Production

transport disaggregation
Transport Disaggregation
  • Overall quantities of petrol, diesel and electricity were known
  • Energy use by most modes of transport not known
  • Some pieces of the jigsaw were known
    • Rail
    • Public Bus Passenger Services – excise rebate
    • Air – kerosene, aviation gasoline…
    • Almost all petrol (gasoline) used by private car – but also some taxis, small commercial vehicles and lawn mowers etc…
transport problems and questions
Transport – problems and questions
  • How to split diesel consumption between private cars and goods carriage
  • What’s the effect of ‘fuel tourism’?
  • What’s driving transport energy growth – private car growth or freight growth…?
  • Car Transport - are purchasing trends (bigger cars) offsetting technical improvements in car engine efficiency?
  • Car Transport – are we really driving much more than in other EU Member States?
jigsaw pieces
Jigsaw Pieces

National Car Test

Fuel Tourism

Private cars tested after 4 years and every 2 years thereafter.

Taxis tested every year.

Before 1995 N.I. prices lower than Republic.

Environment Ministry all island model.

Over 3 million tests since 2000.

model energy use in private cars
Model Energy Use in Private Cars

Annual Mileage

by engine size and fuel

Fuel Efficiency of new cars by engine size

Fuel Efficiency inflated by 20% for on-road

Petrol & Diesel consumption in private cars




  • Ireland’s 2005 Energy Balance
  • Historic Balances
  • Energy in Ireland 1990 – 2005
  • Energy Statistics 1990 – 2005
  • Energy in Transport