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Ingredients - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Ingredients. Flours. Dry ingredients are usually in particle form, such as flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, salt and spices. These ingredients tend to need sifting. Wet ingredients are ingredients that need to be poured. These include milk, water, juice, eggs, oil, etc.

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Presentation Transcript
recipes

Dry ingredients are usually in particle form, such as flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, salt and spices. These ingredients tend to need sifting.

  • Wet ingredients are ingredients that need to be poured. These include milk, water, juice, eggs, oil, etc.
  • Solid ingredients refer to non-liquids and include butter, cream cheese, sour cream, yogurt, chocolate, nuts and fruit.
Recipes…..

Recipes are made of individual ingredients that are put together in a specific way to create a final product. It goes without saying that each ingredient should be of the highest quality, but ingredients also carry out specific functions. Each ingredient plays a role within a recipe to form a final product.

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Wheat Flour is the most important ingredient in a bakeshop because it provides structure and strength to products, including breads, cakes, cookies and pastries.

Hard Wheat

Soft Wheat

Hard wheatflours contain greater quantities of proteins called gluten when the flour is moistened and mixed.

Strong Flours are flours made from hard wheat with a high protein content

Used for making breads and yeast products.

Soft Wheat flours have a low protein content.

Used for making cookies, cakes and pastries.

Weak Flours are flours made from soft wheat.

the milling process a simplified flowchart
The Milling Process: A Simplified Flowchart

Wheat was once made into flour by grinding it between two stones. Once the grain was ground, it was sifted to remove some of the bran. This sifting is called bolting.

composition of flour
Composition of Flour
  • Starch: White flour consists of 68 to 76% starch. Starch can absorb ¼ to ½ of its weight in water.
  • Protein: About 6 to 18% of white flour is protein, depending on the variety of wheat. Proteins act as binding agents that hold the starch granules together in the endosperm. About 80% of the proteins in flour are gluten.
  • Moisture: Flour should always be stored in a dry place. The moisture content of flour in good condition is 11-14%. Any higher and spoilage will occur.
  • Gums: Gums are forms of carbohydrates that make up 2-3% of white flour. Some gums can absorb 10 to 15 times their weight in water and serve as a source of fiber.
  • Fats: Fats only make up about 1% of white flour but it is important to be aware of them for gluten development and spoilage, giving flour an off flavor.
  • Ash: Is the mineral content of flour. The higher the ash content, the darker the flour. The ash content is determined by burning a sample of flour in a controlled environment.
  • Pigments: Orange-yellow pigments called carotenoids are present in flour in tiny amounts. It gives flour a creamy color, rather than white.
you should also know
You Should Also Know………
  • Types of Flours:
  • Straight flour
  • Patent Bread flour
  • Clear flour
  • Hi-Gluten flour
  • Cake Flour
  • Pastry flour
  • All Purpose flour
types of patent flours

Bread Flour: Is patent flour made from hard wheat and is ideal for yeast breads.

  • High-Gluten Flour: Flour with an especially high protein content that is sometimes used for hard crusted breads, pizza dough and bagels. It is also used to strengthen dough that contain little or no gluten. A high gluten flour has 14% protein.
  • Cake Flour: Is a weak or low-gluten flour made from soft wheat. It has a soft smooth texture and a pure white color. It is used for cakes and other delicate baked goods that require low gluten content.
  • Pastry Flour: Is also a weak flour or low-gluten flour, but is slightly stronger than cake flour. It has a creamy white color. Pastry flour is used for pie dough, cookies, biscuits and muffins.
Types of Patent Flours

Bakers generally use the term patent flour to mean patent bread flour. Technically, all white flour except clear flour and straight flour is patent flour, including cake and pastry flours.

hand test for flour strength
A typical small bakery keeps three white wheat flours on hand: cake flour, pastry flour, and bread flour such as patent. You should be able to identify these by sight and touch, because sooner or later, someone will dump a bag of flour into the wrong bin or label it incorrectly. You will need to recognize the problem.Hand Test For Flour Strength…..
other wheat flours
Other Wheat Flours……..

All-purpose Flour: Used in retail markets and used as a general purpose flour in restaurants. Protein content is 11-11.5%.

Durum Flour: Made from durum wheat and used primarily to make spaghetti and dried pastas. Also used in semolina bread.

Self-rising Flour: White flour to which baking powder uniformly and sometimes, salt has been added. However, different formulas call for different proportions of baking powder. Also, baking powder loses its aerating or leavening power with time.

Whole Wheat Flour: Made with the entire wheat kernel and high in fat. The whole wheat flavor is strong.

Bran Flour: Flour to which bran flakes have been added.

Cracked Wheat: Is not a flour, but a type of meal, in which the grains are broken into coarse pieces. It is used to give texture and flavor to specialty breads.

other flours meals starches
Other Flours, Meals, Starches……

Rye Flour

Corn

Contains some protein, but does not form gluten of good quality. Therefore breads made with 100% rye flour hare heavy and dense.

To make a lighter loaf, typical formulas call for 25 to 40% rye flour and 60 to 75% hard wheat flour.

Rye flour is high in pentosan gums, which give structure to breads, but they interfere with gluten development and make dough stickier than wheat dough.

Contains no gluten forming proteins, but is very important in vegetarian diets.

Blue and Yellow cornmeal are available.

Most cornmeal is only made from the endosperm.

Cornmeal is available from grinds made from fine to coarse.

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Buckwheat is technically not a grain because it is the seed not of a grass but of a plant with branched stems and leaves. Buckwheat flour is mostly found in pancakes and crepes, but can also be used in small quantities in specialty breads and multigrain products.

Oats in various forms find uses in the bakeshop.

Spelt is considered to be an ancestor of modern wheat. It contains gluten proteins but they form a rather weak gluten structure that can’t withstand much mixing. It has become increasingly popular as an ingredient in specialty breads.

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SOY

Soy is not a grain but a legume or bean. It can be ground into flour like a grain.

It is low in starch and contains no gluten.

It is high in fat and protein. This makes it valuable in vegetarian diets.

In baking, soy flour can aid in yeast action but must be used in small quantities because high amounts produce a beany flavor to breads that also result in poor texture.

When soy flour is toasted the enzymes that aid in yeast action are destroyed and the flour has a more pleasant flavor.

starches
Starches

Unlike flour, they are used primarily to thicken puddings, pie fillings and similar products.