Ingredients. Flours. Dry ingredients are usually in particle form, such as flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, salt and spices. These ingredients tend to need sifting. Wet ingredients are ingredients that need to be poured. These include milk, water, juice, eggs, oil, etc.
Dry ingredients are usually in particle form, such as flour, sugar, baking powder, baking soda, salt and spices. These ingredients tend to need sifting.
Recipes are made of individual ingredients that are put together in a specific way to create a final product. It goes without saying that each ingredient should be of the highest quality, but ingredients also carry out specific functions. Each ingredient plays a role within a recipe to form a final product.
Wheat Flour is the most important ingredient in a bakeshop because it provides structure and strength to products, including breads, cakes, cookies and pastries.
Hard wheatflours contain greater quantities of proteins called gluten when the flour is moistened and mixed.
Strong Flours are flours made from hard wheat with a high protein content
Used for making breads and yeast products.
Soft Wheat flours have a low protein content.
Used for making cookies, cakes and pastries.
Weak Flours are flours made from soft wheat.
Wheat was once made into flour by grinding it between two stones. Once the grain was ground, it was sifted to remove some of the bran. This sifting is called bolting.
Bread Flour: Is patent flour made from hard wheat and is ideal for yeast breads.
Bakers generally use the term patent flour to mean patent bread flour. Technically, all white flour except clear flour and straight flour is patent flour, including cake and pastry flours.
All-purpose Flour: Used in retail markets and used as a general purpose flour in restaurants. Protein content is 11-11.5%.
Durum Flour: Made from durum wheat and used primarily to make spaghetti and dried pastas. Also used in semolina bread.
Self-rising Flour: White flour to which baking powder uniformly and sometimes, salt has been added. However, different formulas call for different proportions of baking powder. Also, baking powder loses its aerating or leavening power with time.
Whole Wheat Flour: Made with the entire wheat kernel and high in fat. The whole wheat flavor is strong.
Bran Flour: Flour to which bran flakes have been added.
Cracked Wheat: Is not a flour, but a type of meal, in which the grains are broken into coarse pieces. It is used to give texture and flavor to specialty breads.
Contains some protein, but does not form gluten of good quality. Therefore breads made with 100% rye flour hare heavy and dense.
To make a lighter loaf, typical formulas call for 25 to 40% rye flour and 60 to 75% hard wheat flour.
Rye flour is high in pentosan gums, which give structure to breads, but they interfere with gluten development and make dough stickier than wheat dough.
Contains no gluten forming proteins, but is very important in vegetarian diets.
Blue and Yellow cornmeal are available.
Most cornmeal is only made from the endosperm.
Cornmeal is available from grinds made from fine to coarse.
Oats in various forms find uses in the bakeshop.
Spelt is considered to be an ancestor of modern wheat. It contains gluten proteins but they form a rather weak gluten structure that can’t withstand much mixing. It has become increasingly popular as an ingredient in specialty breads.
Soy is not a grain but a legume or bean. It can be ground into flour like a grain.
It is low in starch and contains no gluten.
It is high in fat and protein. This makes it valuable in vegetarian diets.
In baking, soy flour can aid in yeast action but must be used in small quantities because high amounts produce a beany flavor to breads that also result in poor texture.
When soy flour is toasted the enzymes that aid in yeast action are destroyed and the flour has a more pleasant flavor.
Unlike flour, they are used primarily to thicken puddings, pie fillings and similar products.