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    1. Guests 2 Tara, Laura, Kate, Sarah, Jennifer, Veronica

    3. Motivation 2 main motivation forces - (Dann) Pull (External) factors- inspired by a destinations attractiveness, e.g.cultural attractions/beaches Push (Internal) factors- desire to escape, rest, experience social interaction

    4. Theories on what are key motivators for travel Tourists seek authentic experiences since the normative aspects of their lives are felt to be superficial, artificial or contrived (MacCannell)- Quest for the Authentic Other Tourists are looking for something different and unusual, a relatively simple search for the pleasure of the new and surprising (Urry) - Quest for the Other Search for self-actualisation (Selwyn) - Quest for the authentic self

    5. Theories on what are key motivators for travel (1)Traveller is motivated by going away from rather than going towards something/somebody (2) Travellers motives and behaviours are self-orientated- Now I decide what is on and it should be good for me - KING GUEST syndrome, more concerned with the Self and experiencing other cultures plays a subordinate role (Krippendorf)

    6. What motivates you to travel?

    7. Questioning Motivation Theory Motives are difficult to measure: A reiteration of reasons featuring in travel brochures areready made and easy to tick off on a questionnaire Many motives remain hidden in the subconsciousness and cannot be brought to light by simple questions Individuals motivations change across time so tourists will undertake different types of travel experiences (Pearce)

    8. Questioning Motivation Theory The emergence of holidays as lifestyle statements is increasing and may not reflect the individuals real motivation for travelling Features that attract tourist to a site can be considered motivations, but when acted upon become activities (Moscardo et al)

    9. Understanding Tourist Motivation It is important to recognise the heterogeneous nature of tourist motivation (individuals may have multiple motivations) In order to do so = tourist typologies - a method of sociological investigation that seeks to classify tourists according to a particular phenomenon (motivation or behaviour) It is also used as a tool to understand the socio-cultural impacts of tourism and is Useful for product development and marketing

    10. Tourist Typologies- Cohen Institutionalized tourism (organized mass tourist/individual mass tourism) and non- institutionalized (explorer/drifter) Based on similar observable behaviours, useful in understanding the impacts/effects of tourism Static tourism roles, meaningless in todays postmodern society, e.g. try and apply Cohens typology to contemporary travellers (Westerhausen)

    11. Tourist Typologies - Plogg Motivation Plogg- The psychocentric type and the allocentric type(people categorised according to life-style, self-image, attitudes towards life) Links travel motivations to types of destinations Criticism- tourists may not choose a destination but a holiday type e.g. gay holidays

    12. Tourist Typologies questioned The field of tourism has suffered because various scholars have embraced shallow and counterproductive typologies. Do they (the typologies) explain tourists recreative behaviour, or are they, rather, a creation of the author ? (Lowych, van Langenhave and Bollaert)

    13. Tourist typologies questioned Tourists motivations and activities are too complex to collapse into rigid categories Lack of extensive case studies, questionnaires (form of gathering typology data) is problematic Traveller himself is a mixture of many characteristics and cannot be assigned this category of that one (Krippendorf)

    14. Conclusions on Motivation The one unchanged motive for many years has been mental hygiene(Krippendorf) Long list of motives = contradictions= nature of tourism, a scintilling and multi-faceted part of human and social reality Tourists will continue to use consumerism as a channel of personal transformation

    15. Predictions for future travel motivations Shift towards more active holidays Shift towards more responsible holidays Increasing interest in specific interest holidays Increase in lifestyle statement holidays Increase in modern travellers

    16. Rites of Passage Separation: initial removal from society or ordinary life Liminality: period of marginality Incorporation: re-entry into society (van Gennep)

    17. Rites of Passage Social Rites of Passage: childhood adulthood unmarried married wife widow Tourist Rites of Passage: subjective? Individual?

    18. Rites of Passage Checklist: Summer Camp Camping/Nature (May 24 weekend) Spring Break Grand Tour of Europe Study/Work Abroad Las Vegas, New York Disneyworld Snowbird retirement

    19. Pilgrimage Pilgrimage may be defined as travel to sacred places undertaken in order to gain spiritual merit or healing or as an act of penance or thanksgiving (Burns & Hoggart)

    20. Pilgrimage Religious pilgrimages: churches, cathedrals, mosques & temples (eg. Vatican, Mecca, Kibbutz) Trophy pilgrimage: Europe Paris Louvre Mona Lisa (MacCannell) Genealogical pilgrimage: return to the home of ones ancestors

    21. The Tourist Gaze

    22. John Urry (1990) Sociologist Part of the tourism experience is to gaze upon or view different scenes, which are out of the ordinary We gaze at what we encounter This gaze is socially organised and systemised (theory adapted from Foucoults work) Urry writes on how the tourist gaze has changed and developed, the processes by which it is reinforced, and considers who or what authorises it and what are the consequences for the places and people which are its object. there is no single gaze as such. It varies by society, by social group and by historical period. The Tourist Gaze is constructed

    23. Urry describes: - Romantic Gaze = individual encounter with place visited - Collective Gaze = togetherness in visiting Romantic Gaze in opposition with Collective Gaze paradoxical because as more people seek the untouched destination the more it then comes under the Collective Gaze Media produces, conditions the tourist gaze e.g. wildlife programs, marketing There are many professional experts who help to construct and develop our gaze as tourists. Places are chosen to be gazed upon anticipation is constructed and sustained e.g. TV, magazines (but who chooses what and how this takes place)

    24. The Gaze turns landscape and people encountered into objects of aesthetic pleasure. Some argue that this is done through visual possession. Cameras capture the gaze and can separate some tourists from locals. They are providing a spectacle for visual capture and consumption (even if it is unintentional). Appropriate the object of the photo. Nature, environments and people are transformed into objects that are passed on.

    25. Dynamic Text and Tourist Gaze Andrew McGregor 2000 McGregor examined the way in which guidebooks lead to a commoditized experience and gaze, and the power that text has over the tourist perceptions and experience in Tana Toraja in Sulawesi. Guidebooks as tutoring tourists to gaze at aspects of a place either comparatively, enthusiastically or with disinterest in order to realise an authentic exotic Other. The tourists realise images they go to see authenticity can be irrelevant in terms of satisfaction Tourists becoming permanent parts of the landscape, and therefore influencing how tourism objects are reworked to fit the gaze. Influence of text on gazes. Creates a standardised image of what to expect. How it affects where travellers go and what travellers do within a destination.

    29. Dahles work on Amsterdam Canal tours present an image of Amsterdam in front of a global audience - constructed gaze route takes in distinct objects that invoke a sense of Amsterdam People are told what to gaze at, when and where to look. View from boat is the Citys public face. Symbolically simple and adorned with stereotypical features. Private face walking tours from within. Profitable tourist gazes, such gazes are not left to chance. (MaCannell) Constructed a gaze of the townscape in their own narrative style.

    32. Performance Authenticity is not a fixed property; it is a negotiated attribute with multiple dimensions whose status is evaluated by different assessors (Handler & Saxton) The Bamboo Beating Dance in Hainan, China (Xie 2003) Senegalese Dance Performances in Dakar (Daniel 1996) Tourist involvement leads to creativity If the tourists are satisfied is it all that matters?

    33. Authenticity Part 2 Pre Departure

    34. Authenticity Marketing tool Tourist myth Experience a different way of life White beaches, palm trees Undiscovered places

    35. Authenticity Danns study 4 types of paradise Paradise Contrived no people; natives as scenery; natives as cultural markers Paradise Confined tourists only tourist ghetto Paradise Controlled limited contact with locals: natives as servants, natives as entertainers, natives as vendors Paradise Confused further contact with locals, attempt to enter locals only zones: natives as seducers, natives as intermediaries, natives as familiar, natives as tourists, tourists as natives. -Dann 1996

    36. Kuoni example

    37. Thomas Cook examples

    38. First Choice example

    39. Modernism & Postmodernism Modernism conceives of representations as being problematic, whereas postmodernism problematises reality (Urry, 1990, 13)

    40. Characteristics of Modernism and Postmodernism How does this shift change how we look at tourism Example- authenticity in tourism

    41. The Santa Claus Industry & commodification of Christmas

    42. Why do people visit such sites?

    43. Tourism Tourism is not isolated from political, natural, economic or social environments A complex set of social phenomena A system or a set of subsystems- connected with society and culture

    44. Tourism and Anthropology Tourism and anthropology both seek to identify and make sense of human dynamics- host/guest interaction at the heart of tourism This human interaction, not business and marketing, is the key factor in tourisms many paradoxes= important link between tourism and anthropology Tourism is a global set of activities crossing many cultures, there is a need for deeper understanding of the consequences of the interaction between generating and receiving tourism societies (Burns and Holden)

    45. Tourism and Anthropology Tourism viewed as a ritual Vs Tourism viewed as a form of imperialism

    46. Anthropology and tourism questioned Tourism has to too many motivations to and is too complex to be categorised Too much work on the anthropology of tourism lacks empirical (research) grounding Reflects the white middle class views of authors rather that scientific evidence