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FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling Overview B. Nelson, T. Burgess, T. Brown, D. Driemeyer, H-M Fan, K. Freudenberg, G. Jones, C. Kessel, P. Ryan, M. Sawan, M. Ulrickson, D. Strickler, D. Williamson FIRE Physics Validation Review March 31, 2004 Presentation Outline Vacuum Vessel

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fire vacuum vessel and remote handling overview

FIRE Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling Overview

B. Nelson, T. Burgess, T. Brown, D. Driemeyer, H-M Fan, K. Freudenberg, G. Jones, C. Kessel, P. Ryan, M. Sawan, M. Ulrickson, D. Strickler,

D. Williamson

FIRE Physics Validation Review

March 31, 2004

presentation outline
Presentation Outline
  • Vacuum Vessel
    • Design requirements
    • Design concept and features
    • Analysis to date
    • Status and summary
  • Remote Handling
    • Maintenance Approach & Component Classification
    • In-Vessel Transporter
    • Component Replacement Time Estimates
    • Balance of RH Equipment
  • Design and analysis are consistent with pre-conceptual phase, but demonstrate basic feasibility of concepts

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

fire vacuum vessel
FIRE vacuum vessel

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vacuum vessel functions
Vacuum vessel functions
  • Plasma vacuum environment
  • Primary tritium confinement boundary
  • Support for in-vessel components
  • Radiation shielding
  • Aid in plasma stabilization
    • conducting shell
    • internal control coils
  • Maximum access for heating/diagnostics

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vacuum vessel parameters
Vacuum vessel parameters
  • Configuration: Double wall torus
    • Shielding water + steel with 60% packing factor
    • Volume of torus interior 53 m^3
    • Surface Area of torus interior 112 m^2
    • Facesheet thickness 15 mm
    • Rib thickness 15 - 30 mm
    • Weight of structure, incl ports 65 tonnes
    • Weight of torus shielding 100 tonnes
  • Coolant
    • Normal Operation Water, < 100C, < 1 Mpa
    • Bake-out Water ~150C, < 1 Mpa
  • Materials
    • Torus, ports and structure 316LN ss
    • Shielding 304L ss (tentative)

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vessel port configuration
Vessel port configuration

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vessel ports and major components

Divertor piping

Cryopump

Divertor

Midplane port w/plug

Vessel ports and major components

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

nuclear shielding concept
Nuclear shielding concept
  • Vessel shielding, port plugs and TF coils provide hands-on access to port flanges
  • Port plugs weigh ~7 tonnes each as shown, assuming 60% steel out to TF boundary

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

active and passive stabilizing sys
Active and passive stabilizing sys.
  • passive plates ~25 mm thick copper with integral cooling

Active control coils, segmented into octants

IB and OB passive stabilizing conductor

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

passive conductor is also heat sink
Passive conductor is also heat sink

VV splice plate

  • Copper layer required to prevent large temperature gradients in VV due to nuclear heating, PFCs
  • Passive plates are required in most locations anyway
  • PFCs are conduction cooled to copper layer
    • Reduces gradient in stainless skin
    • Extends pulse length

Cu filler (can be removed to allow space for mag. diag.)

Cu Passive stabilizer

VV

PFC Tile

Gasket

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

fire and iter first wall concepts similar
FIRE and ITER first wall concepts similar
  • BE, Cu, SSt
  • Detachable FW panel
  • Cooling integral with FW panel (requires coolant connections to FW)

ITER

  • BE, Cu, SSt
  • Detachable FW tiles
  • Cooling integral with Cu bonded to VV

FIRE

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vv octant subassy w passive structure
VV octant subassy w/passive structure

Outboard passive conductor

Inboard passive cond.

Vessel octant prior to welding outer skin between ribs

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vessel octant subassembly fab 2
Vessel octant subassembly fab. (2)
  • Octant-to-octant splice joint requires double wall weld
  • All welding done from plasma side of vessel
  • Splice plates used on plasma side only to take up tolerance and provide clearance
  • Plasma side splice plate wide enough to accommodate welding the coil side joint

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vessel analysis
Vessel analysis
  • Vessel subjected to numerous loading conditions
    • Normal operation (gravity, coolant pressure, thermal loads, etc.)
    • Disruption (including induced and conductive (halo) loads
    • Other loads (TF current ramp, seismic, etc.)
  • Preliminary FEA analysis performed
    • Linear, static stress analysis
    • Linear, transient and static thermal analyses
  • Main issues are disruption loads, thermal stresses

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vacuum vessel mechanical loads
Vacuum vessel mechanical loads

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

disruption effects on vv
Disruption effects on VV
  • Disruptions will cause high loads on the VV due to induced currents and conducting (halo) currents flowing in structures
    • Direct loads on vessel shell and ribs
    • Direct loads on passive plates
    • Reaction loads at supports for internal components
    • Divertor assemblies and piping
    • FW tiles
    • Port plugs / in-port components (e.g. RF antennas)
  • Dynamic effects should be considered, including:
    • Transient load application
    • Shock loads due to gaps in load paths (gaps must be avoided)
  • All loads should be considered in appropriate combinations

e.g. Gravity + coolant pressure + VDE + nuclear / PFC heating + Seismic + …

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

tsc runs confirm induced currents will concentrate in passive structures
TSC runs confirm induced currents will concentrate in passive structures
  • Several TSC disruption simulations prepared by C. Kessel
  • VDE simulation used as basis for further analysis

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vde analysis based on tsc runs
VDE analysis based on TSC runs
  • TSC output used to create drivers for Eddycuff model of VV
  • Peak loads applied to ANSYS model of VV
  • Halo loads from TSC mapped directly onto VV model

Inner

Face

Sheet

Outer

Face

Sheet

Copper

Plates

EDDYCUFF EM Model

ANSYS Structural Model

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

slide19

I (A)

10-ms

300-ms

301-ms

Reduced

Filament

Model (EDDYCUFF)

TSC

Filaments

301.6-ms

302.6-ms

Plasma Evolution (TSC), from earlier data

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

slide20

Typical Induced Eddy Currents

Constant Current Vectors

Proportional Current Vectors

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

slide21

Current vs Time, Slow VDE (1 MA/ms)

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

slide22

Typical EM loads due to Induced Current

  • Max force = -1 MN radial, +0.7 MN vertical per 1/16 sector (~11 MN tot)

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

slide23

1 MA/ms VDE

FZ

F(lbs)

FR

Case 2

Case 1

t(s)

Total Force vs time, induced + halo currents

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

slide24

Typ. EM Force distr. due to Halo Current

  • Mapped directly from TSC to ANSYS, Halo current = 12-25% Ip
  • Max force = +0.13 MN radial, +1.2 MN vert. per 1/16 sector

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

divertor loads from current loop

Y

Z

Pin 1 Reaction

Fx=12662

Fz=10708

Lug 1 Reaction

Fx=35121

Fy=40107

Fz=6987

X

Pin 2 Reaction

Fx=-22147

Fz=6614

Lug 2 Reaction

Fx=-32540

Fy=-36384

Fz=-6473

Forces are in pounds

Divertor loads from current loop
  • Loads based on PC-Opera analysis *ref Driemeyer, Ulrickson

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

combined stress with vde
Combined stress, with VDE
  • Stresses due to gravity, coolant pressure, vacuum, VDE
  • VDE load includes direct EM loads on vessel (induced current and halo) and non-halo divertor loads

Stress is in psi

1.5Sm = 28 ksi (195 Mpa)

Stress is in psi

VV Torus

Ports

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

divertor attachment local stresses
Divertor attachment local stresses
  • Global model not adequate for analysis
  • Detailed model indicates adequate design

Extended pins through the ribs and attached them to the outer shell

Reinforced pins near connection points

Increased hole Diameter to 0.7”

Modified rib thickness to correct values

1.5Sm = 28ksi (195 Mpa)

Stress is in psi

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

nuclear heating and thermal effects
Nuclear heating and thermal effects
  • Vacuum vessel is subject to two basic heat loads:
    • Direct nuclear heating from neutrons and gammas
    • Heating by conduction from first wall tiles (which in turn are heated by direct nuclear heating and surface heat flux)
  • A range of operating scenarios is possible, but the baseline cases for analysis assume:
    • 150 MW fusion power
    • 100 W/cm^2 surface heat load assumed on first wall,
      • 45 W/cm^2 is current baseline (H-mode)
      • > 45 W/cm^2 for AT modes
    • pulse length of 20 seconds (H-mode - 10T, 7.7 MA)
    • Pulse length of 40-ish seconds (AT mode - 6.5T, 5 MA)
  • Vessel is cooled by water
    • Flowing in copper first wall cladding
    • Flowing between walls of double wall structure

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

heat loads on vessel and fea model
Heat loads on vessel and FEA model
  • Fusion power of 150 MW
  • Surface heat flux is variable, 0, 50,100, and 150 W/cm2 analyzed

C

B

D

A

Double wall Vac Vessel

Cu cladding

Tile, (36 mm)

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

2 d temp distr 100w cm 2 surface flux
2-D temp distr (100W/cm2 surface flux)

Inboard midplane Outboard midplane

20 s pulse

383 C

377 C

40 s pulse

Be limit ~ 600C

619 C

622 C

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

peak be temp vs heat flux pulse length
Peak Be temp vs heat flux, pulse length

Be limit

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

nuclear heating distribution
Nuclear heating distribution*

Neutron wall loading

Volumetric heating:

plasma side, ss

coil side, ss

divertor

* Ref M. Sawan

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

typical 3 d temp distribution in vv
Typical 3-D temp distribution in VV

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

vv thermal deformation and stress
VV thermal deformation and stress

Stress is in psi

Peak

High stress region localized

Stress < 3xSm ( 56 ksi)

Typical Deformation

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

combined stresses 40 s pulse
Combined stresses, 40 s pulse

Stress is in psi

  • Nuclear heating, gravity, coolant pressure, vacuum

Max Stress = 23 ksi, < 3Sm (56ksi) Max Deflection = 0.041 in.

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

combined stress 10t 7 7ma 20 s pulse with vde is worst loading condition
Combined stress, 10T, 7.7MA, 20 s pulse, with VDE is worst loading condition
  • Nuclear heating, gravity, coolant pressure, vacuum, slow VDE

Stress is in psi

Stress is in psi

3xSm

Max Stress = 58 ksi, > 3Sm (56ksi), but very localized

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

combined stress 6 5t 5 ma 40 s pulse with vde not as severe as high field case
Combined stress, 6.5T, 5 MA, 40 s pulse, with VDE – not as severe as high field case
  • Nuclear heating, gravity, coolant pressure, vacuum, slow VDE

Stress is in psi

Max Stress = 46 ksi, < 3Sm (56ksi), also very localized

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

preliminary vv stress summary 1
Preliminary VV stress summary (1)

Normal, High field (10T, 7.7 MA), 20 s pulse operation – O.K.

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

preliminary vv stress summary 2
Preliminary VV stress summary (2)

High field (10T, 7.7 MA), 20 s pulse with VDE – a little high

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

preliminary vv stress summary 3
Preliminary VV stress summary (3)

Normal, Low field (6.5T, 5 MA), 40 s pulse operation – O.K.

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

preliminary vv stress summary 4
Preliminary VV stress summary (4)

Low field (6.5T, 5 MA), 40 s pulse with VDE – O.K.

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

conclusions of vessel analysis
Conclusions of vessel analysis
  • Can vessel achieve normal operation? YES
  • Can vessel achieve pulse length? YES
    • 20 second pulse appears achievable
    • 40 second pulse should be achievable but depends on surface heat flux distribution and Be temperature
  • Can vessel take disruption loads? ITS CLOSE
    • Some local stresses over limit, but local reinforcement is possible
    • Additional load cases must be run

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

what analysis tasks are next
What analysis tasks are next?
  • Optimized geometry and refined FEA models
  • Dynamic analysis with temporal distribution of VDE loads
  • Fatigue analysis, including plastic effects
  • Seismic analysis
  • Plastic analysis
  • Limit analysis

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

longer term issues for fire
Longer term issues for FIRE
  • Refine design
    • Develop design of generic port plug
    • Optimize divertor attachments for stress, remote handling
    • Design internal plumbing and shielding
    • Re-design / optimize gravity supports
  • Perform needed R&D
    • Select/verify method for bonding of copper cladding to vessel skin
    • Select/verify method for routing of cooling passages into and out of cladding
    • Develop fabrication technique for in-wall active control coils
    • Perform thermal and structural tests of prototype vessel wall, with cladding, tubes, tiles, etc. (need test facility)
    • Verify assembly welding of octants and tooling for remote disassembly/reassembly (need test facility)

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

remote handling overview
Remote Handling Overview

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

remote handling
Remote Handling*
  • Maintenance Approach & Component Classification
  • In-Vessel Transporter
  • Component Replacement Time Estimates
  • Balance of RH Equipment

*ref T. Burgess

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

remote maintenance approach
Remote Maintenance Approach
  • Hands-on maintenance employed to the fullest extent possible. Activation levels outside vacuum vessel are low enough to permit hands-on maintenance.
  • In-vessel components removed as integral assemblies and transferred to the hot cell for repair or processing as waste.
  • In-vessel contamination contained by sealed transfer casks that dock to the VV ports.
  • Midplane ports provide access to divertor, FW and limiter modules. Port mounted systems (heating and diagnostics) are housed in a shielded assembly that is removed at the port interface.

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

remote maintenance approach 2
Remote Maintenance Approach (2)
  • Upper and lower auxiliary ports house diagnostic and cryopump assemblies that are also removable at the port interface.
  • Remote operations begin with disassembly of port assembly closure plate.
  • During extended in-vessel operations (e.g., divertor changeout), a shielded enclosure is installed at the open midplane port to allow human access to the ex-vessel region.
  • Remote maintenance drives in-vessel component design and interfaces. Components are given a classification and preliminary requirements are being accommodated in the layout of facilities and the site.

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

remote handling classification of components

Class 1

Class 2

Class 3

Class 4*

Divertor Modules

Limiter Modules

Midplane Port Assemblies

- RF heating

- diagnostics

First Wall Modules

Upper and Lower Horiz. Auxiliary Port Assemblies

- cryopumps

- diagnostics

Vacuum Vessel Sector with TF Coil

Passive Plates

In-Vessel Cooling Pipes

- divertor pipes

- limiter pipes

Toroidal Field Coil

Poloidal Field Coil

Central Solenoid

Magnet Structure

Remote Handling,Classification of Components

* Activation levels acceptable for hands-on maintenance

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

in vessel remote handling transporter
In-Vessel Remote Handling Transporter

Cantilevered Articulated Boom (± 45° coverage)

  • Complete in-vessel coverage from 4 midplane ports.
  • Local repair from any midplane port.
  • Handles divertor, FW modules, limiter (with component specific end-effector).
  • Transfer cask docks and seals to VV port and hot cell interfaces to prevent spread of contamination.

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

port plug designed for rh
Port plug designed for RH
  • Plug uses ITER-style connection to vessel, accommodates transfer cask

VV to Cryostat seal

VV port flange

Connecting plate

Cryostat panel

Midplane port plug

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

slide52

In-Vessel Remote Handling (2)

Divertor and baffle handled as one unit

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

divertor handling end effector
Divertor Handling End-Effector
  • Six (6) positioning degrees of freedom provided by boom (2 DOF) and end-effector (4 DOF)
  • Module weight = 800 kg

Transport position

Installation position

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

component maintenance frequency and time estimates
* Includes active remote maintenance time only. Actual machine shutdown period will be longer by ~ > 1 month.

** Based on single divertor module replacement time estimate.

† Based on midplane port replacement time estimate.

Component Maintenance Frequency and Time Estimates

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

remote handling equipment summary
Remote Handling Equipment Summary
  • In-Vessel Component Handling System
    • In-vessel transporter (boom), viewing system and end-effectors (3) for: divertor module, first wall / limiter module and general purpose manipulator
  • In-Vessel Inspection System
    • Vacuum compatible metrology and viewing system probes for inspecting PFC alignment, and erosion or general viewing of condition
    • One of each probe type (metrology and viewing) initially procured
  • Port-Mounted Component Handling Systems
    • Port assembly transporters (2) with viewing system and dexterous manipulator for handling port attachment and vacuum lip-seal tools
    • Includes midplane and auxiliary port handling systems

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

remote handling equipment summary 2
Remote Handling Equipment Summary (2)
  • Component & Equipment Containment and Transfer Devices
    • Cask containment enclosures (3) for IVT, midplane and auxiliary port
    • Double seal doors in casks with docking interfaces at ports and hot cell interfaces
    • Cask transport (overhead crane or air cushion vehicles TBD) and support systems
    • Portable shielded enclosure (1) for midplane port extended opening
  • Remote Tooling
    • Laser based cutting, welding and inspection (leak detection) tools for:
      • vacuum lip-seal at vessel port assemblies (2 sets)
      • divertor and limiter coolant pipes (2 sets)
    • Fastener torquing and runner tools (2 sets)
  • Fire Site Mock-Up
    • Prototype remote handling systems used for developing designs are ultimately used at FIRE site to test equipment modifications, procedures and train operators
    • Consists of prototypes of all major remote handling systems and component mock-ups (provided by component design WBS)

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling

some generic issues for iter fire
Some generic issues for ITER/FIRE
  • Develop ASME code for Fusion (Section III, Division 4) to avoid force fitting designs to Section III
  • Develop remote, in-vessel inspection systems
    • leak detection
    • metrology
    • Detection of incipient failure modes, like cracks
  • Create a qualification / test facility for in-vessel and in-port components to quantify and improve RAM
    • Thermal environment
    • Vacuum environment
    • Mechanical loading, shock, fatigue
    • Remote handling capability

FIRE Physics Validation Review: Vacuum Vessel and Remote Handling