Current paradigms in psychopathology and therapy
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Current Paradigms in Psychopathology and Therapy. Past and Present Tomàs, J . What is a paradigm?. What do you think???. A Paradigm:. is a conceptual framework to examine a given phenomenon. has a set of basic assumptions .

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What is a paradigm l.jpg
What is a paradigm?

  • What do you think???

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A Paradigm:

  • is a conceptual framework to examine a given phenomenon.

  • has a set of basic assumptions.

    Determines which methods (data collection, analysis) will be used to study a given phenomenon.

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Paradigms in Abnormal Psychology

  • Biological

  • Psychodynamic (Psychoanalytical)

  • Behavioral

  • Cognitive

  • Humanistic

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A. Biological Paradigm: Disease Model

  • Basic assumptions:

  • 1. Biology plays a role in pathological behavior.

  • 2. Psychopathology is caused by disease.

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Flaws with Biological model

  • 1. Factors unrelated to biology may influence the onset of psychopathology.

    E.g., environmental factors (life-style, abuse) may play role in some mental disorders (depression).

  • 2. Multiple factors may influence onset of psychopathology.

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Evidence that biology plays a role comes from 2 sources:

  • 1. Behavioral Genetics – examines how much of individual differences in behavior are due to genetic makeup.

  • 2. Biochemistry in the nervous system

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Behavioral Genetics: Theory

  • Genotype – the physiological genetic constitution of a person. (fixed at birth, but not static)

  • Phenotype- the observable expression of our genes (changes over time & is product of interaction with genotype & environment).

  • E.g., A child may be hard-wired for high intellectual achievement, but will need environmental stimulation to produce development.

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We may have a biological predisposition for a mental disorder.

  • This is called a Diathesis.

  • Does having a diathesis automatically mean you will develop the mental disorder?

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No!!!! disorder.

  • It will depend on how your biology interacts with environmental factors (parental rearing, peers)

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How do we study behavior genetics? disorder.

  • 1. Family members

  • 2. Twin studies

  • 3. Adoption studies

  • 4. Linkage analysis

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Family Members: disorder.

  • Studies the 1st & 2nd degree relatives of individual with a given mental disorder.

  • 1st-degree relatives-parents & siblings (50%-shared genes)

  • 2nd-degree relatives-aunts, uncles (25%-shared genes)

  • Are compared with index cases (probands).

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If there is a genetic predisposition: disorder.

  • 1st degree relatives of the index case(s), should have the disorder at a higher rate than in the general pop.

  • E.g., 10% of 1st degree relatives of index cases with schizophrenia can be diagnosed with schizophrenia

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Twin method disorder.

  • Monozygotic (100% shared genes) & dizygotic twins (50% shared genes) are compared.

  • Start with diagnosis of one twin & see if other twin develops same disorder.

  • When twins are similarly diagnosed, they are said to be concordant.

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If disorder is heritable-- concordance rate will be higher for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Problems:

  • 1. May reflect environmental factors.

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Adoption studies for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Examine children who were adopted & reared apart from their “abnormal” parents.

  • Reduces environmental influences, should reflect effect of genetics.

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Linkage Analysis: for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Uses DNA blood testing to examine the influence of genetics inmental disorders.

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B. Psychodynamic Paradigm for MZ than for DZ twins.:

  • Argues that our behavior results from unconscious conflicts.

  • Conflicts are outside of our awareness (iceberg theory).

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Structures of mind for MZ than for DZ twins.:

  • 1. Id (unconscious) “wants” to satisfy basic urges (thirst, hunger, sex).

  • 2. Ego (primarily conscious) tries to satisfy id impulses without breaking societal norms.

  • 3. Super-ego (conscious) our morality center which tells us right from wrong.

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Psychosexual stages of development for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • 1. Oral (birth to 1 yr)- needs gratified orally (sucking).

    2. Anal (2yr)-needs met- through elimination of waste.

  • 3. Phallic (3-5 yrs)-needs met through genital stimulation.

  • 4. Latency (6-12 yrs)-impulses dormant.

  • 5. Genital (13+)-needs met through intercourse.

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Defense mechanisms- unconscious & protect ego from anxiety. for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Repression

  • Projection

  • Reaction formation

  • Displacement

  • Denial

  • rationalization

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Problems: for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • 1.  Freud had no scientific data to support his theories.

  • 2. Freud’s theories (unconscious, libido, etc.) cannot be observed.

  • 3.  Theory explains behavior (post-hoc) after the fact.

  • 4. Observations not representative of population.

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Freud’s therapy for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Premise—we have repressed information in unconscious that needs to come out.

  • How???

  • Free-association, dream analysis, hypnosis.

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C. Behavior paradigm for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Focuses on observable behaviors.

  • Premise—abnormal behavior is learned!!

  • Learning (classical & operant conditioning, modeling)

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Classical conditioning for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Pavlov’s study:

  • Step 1: Meat Powder (UCS)---Salivation (UCR)

  • Step 2: Bell (CS) ---- Salivation (UCR)

  • -Meat Powder (UCS)----

  • Step 3: Bell (CS)---------Salivation (CR)

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Conditioning emotional responses: Watson & Raynor for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Classically conditioned 11-month-old infant to fear white rats (Santa beard, cotton).

  • Presented infant with cute white rat—child showed interest in rat, was then presented with a loud noise (startle response).

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Operant conditioning: for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Desired behaviors are reinforced (positive, negative), whereas undesirable behaviors are extinguished (punishment).

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Modeling (Albert Bandura) for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • We learn how to behavior, by watching others.

  • Whether we will produce a given behavior is determined by whether we have seen it reinforced or punished.(Famous Bobo Doll study)

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Behavioral therapies for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Systematic desensitization (phobias, anxiety)

  • Flooding (phobias, anxiety)

  • Aversion conditioning (pedophiles)

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Criticisms of theory: for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • 1. Abnormal behavior not connected to particular learning experiences (schizophrenia).

  • 2. Simplistic circular reasoning (Description as explanation).

  • 3. Useful for treatment, but not as cause for most mental disorders.

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Cognitive for MZ than for DZ twins.:

  • Premise- how we organize and interpret information

  • Criticism of Cognitive Paradigm

  • Concepts are slippery, not well defined.

  • cognitive explanations do not explain much

  • E.g., depressed person has negative cognition--I am worthless.

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Therapy for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Cognitive-Behavioral therapy

  • Rational Emotive therapy

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E. Humanistic: for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • Theorists argue we are driven to self-actualize, that is, to fulfill our potential for goodness and growth.

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Roger’s Humanistic therapy for MZ than for DZ twins.

  • We all have a basic need to receive positive regard from the important people in our lives (parents).

  • Those who receive unconditional positive regard early in life are likely to develop unconditional self-regard.

  • That is, they come to recognize their worth as persons, even while recognizing that they are not perfect. Such people are in good shape to actualize their positive potential.