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Colourfastness Testing. Colourfastness to rubbing / crocking. Colorfastness to Crocking. Crocking - A transfer of colorant from the surface of a colored yarn or fabric to another surface or to an adjacent area of the same fabric principally by rubbing.

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colourfastness testing
Colourfastness Testing

Colourfastness to rubbing / crocking

colorfastness to crocking
Colorfastness to Crocking
  • Crocking - A transfer of colorant from the surface of a colored yarn or fabric to another surface or to an adjacent area of the same fabric principally by rubbing.
  • Although a physical process, the primary evaluation is for appearance (color)
  • Wet and dry evaluation typically performed
crocking instruments
Crocking Instruments
  • Applicable to many textile materials including dye and printed fabrics, carpeting, and automotive interior materials
  • Manual (for shorter tests) and automatic models available
  • Linear and rotating motion models
  • Can be adapted to provide simple abrasion tests for other materials
crocking standard test methods
Crocking : Standard Test Methods
  • AATCC Test Method 8 - Basic Crockmeter Method
  • AATCC Test Method 116 - Rotary Vertical
  • AATCC Test Method 165 - Carpets
  • ISO 105-D02 - Organic Solvents
  • ISO 105-X12 - Colorfastness to rubbing
  • SAE J861 - Organic trim materials
  • ASTM D5053 - Leather
colorfastness to crocking5
Colorfastness to Crocking
  • Crocking finger may need resurfacing
  • Loose clips
  • Incorrect mounting
  • Loops to wire clips positioned downward
  • Metal base warped

Verification checks using the Crockmeter Calibration Cloth are

extremely important to avoid incorrect results.

Potential problems include:

aatcc test method 8 basic
AATCC Test Method 8 (Basic)
  • Recommended specimen size 5cm by 13cm
  • Wet and dry tests are specified
  • Mount white test cloth with the weave parallel to the direction of rubbing
  • Run test for 10 complete turns
  • Evaluate the white test cloth using the Gray Scale for staining
aatcc test method 8 basic7
AATCC Test Method 8 (Basic)
  • For the wet test:
    • Establish technique for preparing wet crock cloth squares by weighing a conditioned square, then thoroughly wet out a white testing square in distilled water
    • The wet pick-up should be 65 ± 5%
    • Use of a hand wringer is recommended
    • White cloth dried and conditioned prior to evaluation
aatcc test method 116 rotary vertical method
AATCC Test Method 116 (Rotary Vertical Method)
  • Method is especially useful for prints where the singling out of areas smaller than possible to test with Method 8 is required
  • Wet and dry tests specified
  • 20 complete turns specified
  • Evaluation performed with the Gray Scale for staining
aatcc test method 165 carpets
AATCC Test Method 165 (Carpets)
  • Testing before/after treatments such as shampooing, steam or hot water extraction, or antistatic/antisoil application has been found useful
  • Wet and Dry testing specified
  • Ten complete turns (one per second) specified
  • Evaluate with Gray Scale for Staining
iso dis105 x12 1999 colour fastness to rubbing
ISO /DIS105-X12 - 1999 Colour fastness to rubbing
  • Method suitable for all kinds of textiles
  • Two alternative sizes of rubbing fingers specified
    • Cylinder of a 16 mm diameter finger exerting a download force of 9 N
    • Finger with a rectangular rubbing surface of 19 mm x 25,4 mm (crock block) exerting a download force of 9 N for pile fabrics including textile floor coverings
    • Suitable apparaturs referring to AATCC TM 8
  • Wet and Dry Test specified
  • Specimen size at least 50 mm x 140 mm
crockmeter cm1
Crockmeter - CM1
  • Manual unit recommended for shorter tests
  • Has cycle counter
  • Comes standard with 16mm finger and 9 N arm
  • For wet and dry tests
  • Cloth, abrasive paper, and spring clip supplied
cm5 crockmeter
CM5 Crockmeter
  • Automatic unit recommended for long/frequent tests
  • Electrically powered
  • Count-up timer with automatic shut down
  • Accessories available
cm6 crockmeter
CM6 Crockmeter
  • Manual unit
  • Reciprocating rotary motion to meet AATCC Test Method 116
  • Can be used for wet and dry testing
colourfastness testing15
Colourfastness Testing

Colourfastness to aqueous agencies:

  • Water,Sea Water, Chlorinated Water

- Perspiration

colorfastness to aqueous agencies
Colorfastness to Aqueous Agencies

ISO Standards

  • ISO 105 E01: Colorfastness to water
  • ISO 105 E02: Colorfastness to sea water
  • ISO 105 E04: Colorfastness to perspiration
colourfastness to water to iso 105 e01
Colourfastness to Water to ISO 105-E01
  • Definition
    • Resistance of the colour to immersion in water
  • Procedure
    • A with “grade 3“ water wetted specimen between two adjacent fabrics and placed between two plates is submitted to a pressure of 12,5 kPa for 4 hours at 37 + 2 °C
  • Asessment
    • Change in Colour of the specimen and staining of the adjacend fabrics with the Grey Scales
colourfastness to sea water to iso 105 e02
Colourfastness to Sea Water to ISO 105-E02
  • Definition
    • Resistance of the colour to immersion in sea water
  • Procedure
    • A with sodium chloride solution (30 g/l) wetted specimen between two adjacent fabrics and placed between two plates is submitted to a pressure of 12,5 kPa for 4 hours at 37 + 2 °C
  • Assessment
    • Change in Colour of the specimen and staining of the adjacend fabrics with the Grey Scales
colourfastness to perspiration to iso 105 e04
Colourfastness to Perspiration to ISO 105-E04
  • Definition
    • Resistance of the colour to the action of human perspiration
  • Procedure
    • A with acid or alkaline histidine solutions wetted specimen between two adjacent fabrics and placed between two plates is submitted to a pressure of 12,5 kPa for 4 hours at 37 + 2 °C
  • Assessment
    • Change in Colour of the specimen and staining of the adjacend fabrics with the Grey Scales
colorfastness to perspiration to aatcc
Colorfastness to Perspiration to AATCC
  • Specimens of colored textiles are wet out in simulated perspiration solution, subjected to a fixed mechanical pressure and allowed to dry slowly at a slightly elevated temperature.
  • AATCC Test Method 15 -- Perspiration
  • AATCC Test Method 107 -- Water
colorfastness to perspiration
Colorfastness to Perspiration
  • Applicable to dyed, printed or otherwise colored textile fibers, yarns and fabrics
  • Also applicable to dyestuffs
  • Acid and alkaline test eliminated after studies done in 1974
    • Some international and special end-use still require alkaline test
colorfastness to perspiration22
Colorfastness to Perspiration
  • Acid Solution (One liter)
    • 10g sodium chloride
    • 1g lactic acid, USP 85%
    • 1g disodium hydrogen phosphate anhydrous (Na2HPO4)
    • 0.25g histidine monohydrochloride
  • pH of solution should be 4.3 ± 0.2
colorfastness to perspiration23
Colorfastness to Perspiration
  • Test specimens placed between plates of the unit with an 8 lb. (3.628kg) weight on top
  • Total weight under the pressure plate is 10 lbs. (4.54kg)
  • Evaluate for color change using Gray Scale
colourfastness to chlorinated water to iso 105 e03
Colourfastness to chlorinated water to ISO 105-E03
  • Definition
    • Resistance of the colour to the action of chlorine solutions as used in swimming bath water
  • Procedure
    • A specimen is tested in a separate container of 550 + 50 ml volume filled with sodium hypcochorite solution ( 20, 50 or 100 ml active chlorine) rotating in a mechanical device during one hour at 27 + 2 °C
  • Instrument
    • The specified mechanical water bath corresponds to devices as used for wash fastness tests
  • Assessment
    • Change in colour of the specimen with the Grey Scale
atlas testing devices
ATLAS Testing Devices

Linitest +Launder-Ometer

iso standards
ISO Standards
  • ISO 105 P01 Colour fastness to dry heat
    • 3 Temperature ranges depending on requirements and the stability of the fibres
  • ISO 105 X11 Colour fastness to hot pressing
    • Dry , damp and wet pressing at 3 temperatures described
iso 105 p01
ISO 105 P01
  • Specimen size: 10 cm x 4 cm
  • Temperatures: 150 , 180 , 210 °C + 2 °C
  • Testing time: 30 seconds
  • Presuure specified. 4 + 1 kPa
  • Evaluate specimens for Coulor Change and Staining
    • Grey Scale for Assesssing Change in Colour
    • Grey Scale for assessing Staining
iso 105 x11
ISO 105 X11
  • Dry Pressing – a dry specimen is pressed with a heating device at a specified temperature and time
  • Damp pressing – a dry specimen is covered with a wet cotton adjacent fabric and pressed with a heating device at a specified temperature and time
  • Wet pressing – the upper surface of a wet specimen is covered with a wet cotton adjacent fabric and pressed with a heating device at a specified temperature and time
iso 105 x1131
ISO 105 X11
  • Specimen size: 10 cm x 4 cm
  • Temperatures: 110 – 150 – 200 °C + 2°C
  • Testing time: 30 seconds
  • Heating device as described in ISO 105 P01, however, heat should be transferred to the specimen on the upper side only
  • A suitable insulating material is used to to minimize heat transfer to or from the bottom plate
fixotest
FIXOTEST
  • Standard Instrument for ISO Test Methods
  • Compact unit with three independent test stations
  • Pairs of heating plates independently controllable up to 230 °C
  • Lower Plates can be switched off to allow heat transfer only from the top
aatcc test methods
AATCC Test Methods
  • AATCC Test Method 117 -- (Dry heat)
    • Various temperature ranges depending on requirements and the stability of the fibers
  • AATCC Test Method 133 -- (Hot pressing)
    • Dry, damp, and wet pressing methods described depending on the end use of the textile
    • Various temperature levels used depending on class of textile tested
aatcc test method 117
AATCC Test Method 117
  • Specimen size not specified
  • Testing time is 30 seconds
  • Pressure specified is 40 ± 10 g/cm2
  • Evaluate specimens for color change using:
    • Gray Scale for Color Change (Dyed fabrics)
    • Gray Scale for Staining (Undyed fabrics)
aatcc test method 133
AATCC Test Method 133
  • Dry Pressing -- Dry specimen pressed with heating device
  • Damp Pressing -- Dry specimen covered with wet, undyed cotton cloth, then pressed with heating device
  • Wet Pressing -- Wet specimen covered with wet, undyed cotton cloth, then pressed with heating device
aatcc test method 13336
AATCC Test Method 133
  • Specimen size of 12cm by 4cm is recommended
  • Yarn or thread, knitted to a fabric of above dimensions, is acceptable
  • Dry, damp, and wet pressing all require 15 seconds of testing
  • Evaluate using Gray Scale for Color Change
aatcc test method 13337
AATCC Test Method 133
  • Temperatures specified:
    • 110 ± 2C
    • 150 ± 2C
    • 200 ± 2C
  • Table I of this test method identifies safe ironing temperatures for most fabrics
scorch tester
Scorch Tester
  • Used for both Test Methods 117 and 133
  • Upper plate hinged for sample removal
  • Adjustable pressure
  • Thermostatic control
  • Pyrometer temperature indicator
scorch tester39
Scorch Tester
  • Scorch Tester used for:
    • Colorfastness to Dry Heat
    • Colorfastness to Pressing
    • Tensile Loss from Chlorination Retention
tensile loss due to chlorine retention
Tensile Loss Due to Chlorine Retention
  • AATCC Test Method 92 (Single sample method)
  • AATCC Test Method 114 (Multiple sample method)