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Civil Engineering Materials. Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering Trinity College Dublin. Dr. Roger P. West (TCD) And Mr. Peter Flynn (Arup). Lectures: Weeks 1-3(Wed 3-5): Timber, aluminium, glass and pre-cast

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civil engineering materials

Civil Engineering Materials

Department of Civil, Structural and Environmental Engineering

Trinity College Dublin

Dr. Roger P. West (TCD)

And Mr. Peter Flynn (Arup)

schedule
Lectures:

Weeks 1-3(Wed 3-5): Timber, aluminium, glass and pre-cast

Weeks 4-9(Mon 10-11, Fri 3-4): Concrete, reinforced concrete and pre-stressed concrete

Tutorials:

Alternate weeks, weeks 4-9, Thursday 5-6pm, commencing Groups 1-20 in week 4 of term, in Joly Theatre

Concrete Laboratory:

Each laboratory group on either Monday or Thursday, for one week only, as per timetable

Schedule
slide3
Section A: Concrete
  • A1 Basic Materials:
  • A2 Fresh Concrete Properties:
  • A3 Hardened Concrete Properties:
  • A4 Concrete Mix Design:
  • A5 Reinforced Concrete:
  • A6 Pre-stressed Concrete:
slide4
What is Concrete?
  • Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world
  • Concrete is a construction material composed of crushed rock or gravel and sand bound together with a hardened paste of cement and water.
slide9
Concrete History
  • Eddystone Lighthouse – John Smeaton (1756)
slide10
Concrete History
  • Joseph Aspdin Patent (1824)
slide11
Concrete History
  • Reinforced Concrete Flower Pot (Joseph Monier 1867)
slide12
Concrete History
  • Weavers Mill Swansea (1898)
slide16
Concrete History
  • Toronto Tower
slide17
Section A.1 Basic Materials
  • 1. Cement
  • 2. Water
  • 3. Aggregates
  • 4. Admixtures
slide18
Section A.1 Basic Materials

1. Cement

  • Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC)
  • Rapid Hardening Portland Cement (RHPC)
  • Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement (SRPC)
  • White Portland Cement (WPC)

Specialised Portland Cements:

  • Masonry Portland Cement
  • Low Heat Portland Cement
  • Hydrophobic Portland Cement
  • Oil-well Portland Cement
alternative cement replacement materials
Blastfurnace Slag Cement (GGBS)

Pulverised-fuel Ash Cement (PFA)

Metakaolin

Rice Husk Ash

Silica Fume

Cements in Europe are classed as CEM1 (OPC or RHPC), CEM2-4 (OPC with limestone, PFA or GGBS) in varying proportions pre-blended

Alternative Cement Replacement Materials
slide20
Section A.1 Basic Materials

1. Cement

  • Chemistry of OPC
slide21
Section A.1 Basic Materials

1. Cement

  • Manufacture
slide22
Section A.1 Basic Materials

1. Cement Manufacture

slide23
Section A.1 Basic Materials

1. Cement

  • Sulphate Resistant Portland Cement
  • Low triacalcium aluminate content (C3A)
  • Achieved by adding Iron oxide to decrease aluminate proportions
  • Resistant to sulphates but not resistant to strong acids
  • Reduced early heat
slide24
Section A.1 Basic Materials

1. Cement

  • Pulverised-fuel ash cements (latent hydraulic binder)
  • From burning pulverised coal in power station furnaces
  • Reacts with calcium hydroxide (lime) to from cementitious material
  • Resistant to sulphates but not resistant to strong acids
  • Reduced early heat of hydration
  • Reduced early age strength
slide25
Section A.1 Basic Materials

1. Cement

  • Blastfurnace Slag Cements (latent hydraulic binder)
  • By-product of iron smelting, quenched slag forms granuels
  • Generally blended with OPC up to 35%
  • Reduced early age strength
  • Reduced early heat of hydration
slide29
Section A.1 Basic Materials

1. Cement

  • Delivery & Storage
  • Usually packaged in 25kg bags or transported in bulk tankers
  • Retail price €5
  • “Warehouse set”
slide30
Section A.1 Basic Materials

2. Water

  • Should be free from impurities
  • Unsuitable if it contains - sugars
  • - sulphates
  • - chlorides
  • Sea water must not be used for reinforced concrete
slide31
Section A.1 Basic Materials
  • Hydration
  • Setting and hardening results from a chemical reaction between the cement and the water, not from a drying process.
  • The reaction is exothermic and is irreversible. The heat produced is known as the “Heat of Hydration” C3A and C3S are the compounds primarily responsible.
  • The paste is usually workable up to two hours before it begins to harden
  • Strength gain is initially rapid becoming progressively less rapid
  • Strength gain continues indefinitely provided moisture is present.“Curing”
section a 2 fresh concrete properties

2. Cement hydration

Cement + H2O = Calcium Silicate Hydrate (C-S-H) +Ca (OH)2 +H2O

Section A.2 Fresh Concrete Properties

section a 2 fresh concrete properties33

2. Cement hydration and heat generation

Section A.2 Fresh Concrete Properties

slide34
Section A.1 Basic Materials

2. Cement paste strength gain

slide35
Section A.1 Basic Materials

3. Aggregates

  • Gravels, crushed rock and sands that are mixed with cement and water to produce concrete.
  • Coarse aggregates are those that do not pass through a 5mm sieve.
  • Fine aggregates are those that pass through a 5mm sieve.
  • Generally make from 50% to 80% of the concrete mix.
  • Used to reduce cost and modify and imporve properties like strength and drying shrinkage.
slide36
Section A.1 Basic Materials

3. Aggregates

  • Quality Requirements
  • Durability - Hard
      • - Adequate Strength
      • - No deletrious material
  • Cleanliness - free from chemical impurities
  • - free from organic material
      • - free from dust
      • - excessive washing is not the answer
      • - avoid silica acid aggregates.
slide37
Section A.1 Basic Materials

3. Aggregates

  • Aggregate Types
  • Normal density - Most gravels and crushed rock
      • - Divided into coarse and fine
  • Lightweight - Weak porous solids
  • - Good thermal properties
  • High Density - radioactive screening
slide38
Section A.1 Basic Materials

3. Aggregates

  • Sieve Analysis
section a 1 basic materials

4. Admixtures

  • Additives to the concrete mix to improve certain properties
  • Must be used with care as excessive amounts can have adverse effects on the concrete

Section A.1 Basic Materials

section a 1 basic materials40

4. Admixtures

  • Accelerators
  • Increases the rate of strength gain at an early age
  • Most common is calcium chloride (CaCl) but may corrode steel

Section A.1 Basic Materials

  • Most common is calcium chloride (CaCl) but may corrode steel
  • Does not increase final strength
section a 1 basic materials41

4. Admixtures

  • Water Reducing Admixtures (Plasticisers)
  • Reduces the amount of water required for a given workability
  • Most common is calcium ligno-sulphate
  • Reduces the risk of evaporation cracks

Section A.1 Basic Materials

  • Air Entraining Admixtures
  • Generates evenly dispersed air bubbles in the mix
  • Improves durability against frost and marine environments
  • Volume or air entrainment should not exceed 13% of cement paste
section a 1 basic materials42

4. Admixtures

  • Retarding Agents
  • Reduces the rate of evolution of heat
  • Necessary for very large concrete pours
  • Water-repelling admixtures

Section A.1 Basic Materials

  • Can improve impermeability of concrete in basements and water retaining structures
  • No substitute for sound concrete
section a 1 basic materials43

4. Admixtures

Section A.1 Basic Materials

section a 1 basic materials44
Admixtures

Foaming Agents

Produces highly flowing light concrete

Superplasticiser

Produces flowing normal concrete with high strength

Self-compacting

Allows highly flowing cohesive mix with no need for vibration. It can also be self-levelling.

Section A.1 Basic Materials