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Chapter 8. European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750 - 1000. Timeline. Europeans and the Environment. Sparsely populated, heavily forested landscape Farming Less than 10 percent of land cultivated Low crop yields Climate Improving weather after 700

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chapter 8

Chapter 8

European Civilization in the Early Middle Ages, 750 - 1000

europeans and the environment
Europeans and the Environment
  • Sparsely populated, heavily forested landscape
  • Farming
    • Less than 10 percent of land cultivated
    • Low crop yields
  • Climate
    • Improving weather after 700
    • Constant threat of natural disaster
the world of the carolingians
The World of the Carolingians
  • Charlemagne and the Carolingian Empire (768 – 814)
    • Pepin (751 – 768) deposed last Merovingian
    • Charlemagne from Carolus Magnus, or Charles the Great
    • Expansion of the Carolingian Empire
      • Army gathered each spring for campaign
      • Carolingians crush the Lombards in Italy (773)
      • Disastrous campaign in Spain (777)
      • Campaigns against the Saxons
      • Bavarians, Slavs and Avars
governing charlemagne s empire
Governing Charlemagne’s Empire
  • Governing the Empire
    • Income from royal estates
    • Counts as administrators
    • Missi Dominici
    • System very inefficient
    • Help from the Church
  • Charlemagne as Emperor
    • Pope Leo III (795 – 816)
    • Charlemagne crowned emperor in 800
the carolingian intellectual revival
The Carolingian Intellectual Revival
  • Scriptoria
  • Carolingian Miniscule
  • Carolingian Renaissance
    • Alcuin of Northumbria
life in the carolingian world
The Church, Marriage and Sexuality

Monogamy

Divorce prohibited

The nuclear family

Christianity and Sexuality

Celibacy

Sexual activity permitted only within marriage

Homosexuality

Travel and Hospitality

Diet and Health

Bread as the basic staple

Pork, wild game, dairy, eggs, vegetables

Gluttony and drunkenness

Medical practices

Herbs and Bbleeding

Magic

Life in the Carolingian World:
disintegration of the carolingian empire
Disintegration of the Carolingian Empire
  • Louis the Pious (814 – 840)
    • Treaty of Verdun (843)
      • Charles the Bald (843 – 877): Western Section
      • Louis the German (843 – 876): Eastern Section
      • Lothair (840 – 855): Middle Section
  • Emergence of two different cultures
  • Conflicts between the three sons of Louis the Pious
invasions of the ninth and tenth centuries
Invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries
  • Muslims and Magyars
    • Muslims attack in Mediterranean
    • Magyars settled in modern day Hungary
  • The Vikings
    • Germanic people from Scandinavia
    • Warriors and shipbuilders
    • Russia
    • Ireland, England and France
    • Iceland, Greenland and Newfoundland
castle at les baux constructed as a refuge from saracen raids eight century provence france
Castle at Les Baux Constructed as a Refuge from Saracen raidsEight Century – Provence, France
the emerging world of lords and vassals
The Emerging World of Lords and Vassals
  • Feudalism
  • Vassalage
    • Lords and Vassals
    • Larger horses and stirrups
    • Act of Homage
  • Fief-Holding
    • Grant of land in exchange for military service
    • Fragmented authority in the ninth century
    • Subinfeudation
    • Mutual obligations of lord and vassal
new political configurations in the tenth century
New Political Configurations in the Tenth Century
  • The Eastern Franks
    • The Saxon dynasty
    • Otto I (936 – 973)
  • The Western Franks
    • The Capetians
    • Hugh Capet (987 – 996)
  • Anglo-Saxon England
    • Unification under Alfred the Great (871 – 899)
    • Growth of monarchial government
the manorial system
The Manorial System
  • The Manor
  • Peasants and Serfs
    • 60% of European population had become serfs by ninth century
    • Working the demesne (lord’s land) and paying rents
    • Lord’s legal rights over the serfs
    • Manorial administration
  • Trade in Luxury Goods
the zenith of byzantine civilization
The Zenith of Byzantine Civilization
  • Michael III (842 – 867)
    • Foreign attacks continue
    • Differences with the West
  • The Macedonian Dynasty (867 – 1081)
    • Increased prosperity
    • Conversion of the Prince of Kiev, Russia
    • Military Offensive in the tenth century
    • Basil II (976 – 1025)
the slavic peoples of central and eastern europe
The Slavic Peoples of Central and Eastern Europe
  • Invasion and Assimilation
  • Western Slavs
    • Poland and Bohemia
    • Conversion by Germans
  • Southern Slavs
    • Bulgars
    • Conversion by the Byzantine Empire
  • Eastern Slavs
    • Encounters with Vikings
    • The “Rus”
    • Kiev
    • Vladimir (c. 980 – 1015)
the world of islam
The World of Islam
  • The Umayyad Dynasty
    • Abu al-Abbas puts an end to the Umayyads (750)
  • The Abbasid Dynasty
    • New Capital in Baghdad
    • Harun al-Rashed (786 – 809)
    • Al-Ma’mun (813 – 833)
  • Spain and the Continuation of the Umayyads
    • Abd al-Rahman (756)
  • Fatimid Egypt (973)
islamic civilization
Islamic Civilization
  • Arabic
  • Cities
    • Baghdad
    • Cairo
    • Cordova – Population of 100,000
  • Science and Philosophy
  • Paper and Books
  • Mathematics and Natural Sciences
  • Chemistry and Medicine
    • Ibn Sina (980 – 1037)
      • Medical Encyclopedia
discussion questions
Discussion Questions
  • How was Charlemagne able to unite and govern his large empire?
  • What role did the Church play on family and everyday life in the Carolingian world?
  • Why were the invasions of the Ninth and Tenth Centuries so damaging to Europe?
  • What is the relationship between feudalism and manorialism?
  • What liberties did peasants give up in exchange for land and protection from their lords?
  • What impact did the Byzantine world have on the Slavic people of Central and Eastern Europe and vice versa?
  • What were the factors that contributed to the flourishing of Islamic Civilization under the the Abbasids?
web links
Web Links
  • NetSerf – The Internet Collection of Medieval Resources
  • Internet Medieval Sourcebook – The Carolingians
  • Wharram Percy: A Lost Medieval Village
  • Corpus of Early Medieval Coin Finds
  • Vikings: The North Atlantic Saga
  • Byzantine Studies on the Internet
  • Baghdad: Metropolis of the Abbasid Caliphate