chapter 4 skin and body membranes the dermis l.
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Chapter 4 Skin and Body Membranes “The Dermis” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


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Chapter 4 Skin and Body Membranes “The Dermis”. Dermis. Two layers 1. Papillary layer Projections called dermal papillae Pain receptors Capillary loops 2. Reticular layer Blood vessels Glands Nerve receptors. Skin Structure. Normal Skin Color Determinants. Melanin

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slide2
Dermis

Two layers

1. Papillary layer

  • Projections called dermal papillae
  • Pain receptors
  • Capillary loops

2. Reticular layer

  • Blood vessels
  • Glands
  • Nerve receptors
slide4
Normal Skin Color Determinants

Melanin

  • Yellow, brown or black pigments

Carotene

  • Orange-yellow pigment from some vegetables

Hemoglobin

  • Red coloring from blood cells in dermis capillaries
  • Oxygen content determines the extent of red coloring
slide5
Appendages of the Skin

Sebaceous glands

  • Produce oil

- Lubricant for skin

- Kills bacteria

  • Most with ducts that empty into hair follicles
  • Glands are activated at puberty
nerve receptors
Free nerve endings

detect temp, mechanical stimuli (such as pressure), pain, & touch

Meissner’s corpuscles

Tactile, light touch, found in abundance in fingertips, palms, soles, lips, tongue, face, genitals. In dermal papillae.

Pacinian corpuscles

Deep, pressure, adaptive

Nerve Receptors
slide7
Appendages of the Skin

Sweat glands

  • Widely distributed in skin
  • Two types

1. Eccrine

      • Open via duct to pore on skin surface

2. Apocrine

      • Ducts empty into hair follicles
slide8
Sweat and Its Function

Composition

  • Mostly water
  • Some metabolic waste
  • Fatty acids and proteins (apocrine only)

Function

  • Helps dissipate excess heat
  • Excretes waste products
  • Acidic nature inhibits bacteria growth

Odor is from associated bacteria

slide9
Appendages of the Skin

Hair

  • Produced by hair bulb
  • Consists of hard keratinized epithelial cells
  • Melanocytes provide pigment for hair color

Figure 4.7c

slide10
Hair Anatomy
  • Central medulla
  • Cortex surrounds medulla
  • Cuticle on outside of cortex

-Most heavily keratinized

slide11
Associated Hair Structures

Hair follicle

  • Dermal and epidermal sheath surround hair root

Arrector pilli

  • Smooth muscle
  • Goose bumps

Sebaceous gland

Sweat gland

slide12
Appendages of the Skin

Nails

  • Scale-like modifications of the epidermis

- Heavily keratinized

  • Stratum basale extends beneath the nail bed

- Responsible for growth

  • Lack of pigment makes them colorless
slide13
Nail Structures
  • Free edge
  • Body
  • Root of nail
  • Eponychium – proximal nail fold that projects onto the nail body