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Cardiovascular System (A&P). The Cardiovascular System. A closed system of the heart and blood vessels The heart pumps blood Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body

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the cardiovascular system
The Cardiovascular System
  • A closed system of the heart and blood vessels
    • The heart pumps blood
    • Blood vessels allow blood to circulate to all parts of the body
  • The function of the cardiovascular system is to deliver oxygen and nutrients and to remove carbon dioxide and other waste products
the heart
The Heart

Figure 11.1

the heart coverings
The Heart: Coverings
  • Pericardium – a double serous membrane
    • Visceral pericardium
      • Next to heart
    • Parietal pericardium
      • Outside layer
  • Serous fluid fills the space between the layers of pericardium
the heart heart wall
The Heart: Heart Wall
  • Three layers
    • Epicardium
      • Outside layer
      • This layer is the parietal pericardium
      • Connective tissue layer
    • Myocardium
      • Middle layer
      • Mostly cardiac muscle
    • Endocardium
      • Inner layer
      • Endothelium
slide8
Myocardium is criss-crossed and arranged in figure 8-shaped bundles shown in (b).

MYOCARDIUM IS CRISS-CROSSED

myocardium muscular wall cardiac muscle
Intercalated disks convey the force of contraction from cell to cell and propagate action potentials

Muscle tissue is CONTRACTILE tissue.

Cardiac Muscle Cells are Small, w/ a single nucleus. Short cells.

Involuntary contractions

Myocardium = Muscular Wall =Cardiac Muscle
the heart chambers
The Heart: Chambers
  • Right and left side act as separate pumps
  • Four chambers
    • Atria
        • Receiving chambers
          • Right atrium
          • Left atrium
    • Ventricles
      • Discharging chambers
        • Right ventricle
        • Left ventricle

Figure 11.2c

the heart associated great vessels
The Heart: Associated Great Vessels
  • Aorta
    • Leaves left ventricle
  • Pulmonary arteries
    • Leave right ventricle
  • Vena cava
    • Enters right atrium
  • Pulmonary veins (four)
    • Enter left atrium
blood vessels
Blood Vessels
  • Arteries- Are have thick walls and are Elastic. They Carry blood away from the heart. Arteries become smaller arterioles and branch into capillaries.
  • Veins-Carry blood to the Heart. Veins become smaller venules and and connect with the capillaries
  • Capillaries - Exchanges between cells and nutrients/oxygen occur here only.
dichotomous functions for left right side of heart
Dichotomous Functions for Left & Right Side of Heart
  • Left Side: Collects oxygen-rich blood, which has just passed through the lungs, and pumps it to the rest of the body and brain. The is called systemiccirculation.
  • Right Side : Collects oxygen-poor blood from the body and brain and pumps to the lungs where it picks up oxygen. This is called pulmonarycirculation.
what are the heart valves
What are the Heart Valves?
  • These ensure that blood flows in one direction..no back flow
  • 2 are the atrioventricular valves and 2 are the semilunar valves.
  • Artioventricular: Bicuspid has 2 cusps or valves and Tricupid has 3.
  • Semilunar valves are found within entrances of arteries extending from ventricles
  • PULMONARY semilunar and AORTIC semilunar
the heart valves
The Heart: Valves
  • Allow blood to flow in only one direction
  • Four valves
    • Atrioventricular valves – between atria and ventricles
      • Bicuspid valve (left)(also called Mitral)
      • Tricuspid valve (right)
    • Semilunar valves between ventricle and artery
      • Pulmonary semilunar valve
      • Aortic semilunar valve
the heart valves21
The Heart: Valves
  • Valves open as blood is pumped through
  • Held in place by chordae tendineae (“heart strings”)
  • Close to prevent backflow
what can go wrong with valves
What Can Go Wrong With Valves?

Scarred Valves Sometimes become STENOTIC (THEY CUFFS BECOME STIFFED AND CONSTRICT…DON”T OPEN) Valvular Stenosis

Heart then overworks to force blood through and valves become enlarged

Backflow (regurgitation) through these new incompetent valves creates turbulence or HEART MURMER.

mitral valve prolapse
Mitral Valve Prolapse
  • One or both of the bicuspid valve cusps bulge into the atrium during vertricular contraction.
  • Hereditary: 1in 40, more in women
  • In many cases no serious problems but may cause chest pain , fatigue and shortness of breath.
regurgitant valve
REGURGITANT VALVE
  • HEART VALVES THAT STAY OPEN
  • OR ARE TOO WIDE AND LET BACKFLOW OF BLOOD INTO VENTRICLE
how does my heart beat
How Does My Heart Beat?

Intrinsically by the NODAL System:

the heart conduction system
The Heart: Conduction System
  • Special tissue sets the pace
      • Sinoatrial node
        • Pacemaker
      • Atrioventricular node
      • Atrioventricular bundle
      • Bundle branches
      • Purkinje fibers
slide29
Vasodilation- BLOOD VESSEL ENLARGES
  • Vasoconstriction- BLOOD VESSEL CONSTRICTS
why does my heart beating faster or slower
Why Does My Heart Beating Faster or Slower?
  • Several Reasons: But Remember the input of the ANS:

The Autonomic Nervous System:Sympathetic Nervous: Fight or Flight- speeds it up Parasympathetic slows it down

  • Remember that SNS and PNS are for the most part antagonistic.
sympathetic nervous system
Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are both produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands.
  • These hormones are produced during times of stress..such as fear or extreme exercise.
  • Result: Increase in contraction, heart rate and blood pressure.
blood vessels32
Blood Vessels
  • Arteries- Are have thick walls and are Elastic. They Carry blood away from the heart. Arteries become smaller arterioles and branch into capillaries.
  • Veins-Carry blood to the Heart. Veins become smaller venules and and connect with the capillaries
  • Capillaries - Exchanges between cells and nutrients/oxygen occur here
critical factor concerning arteries elasticy
Critical Factor Concerning Arteries: ELASTICY
  • If arteries are HEALTHY, they are clear and very elastic. They can accommodate greater CO.as they S..T..R..E..T..C…H
  • Use equation for Pressure equals F/a to show this.
vital signs
VITAL SIGNS
  • PULSE- an alternating expansion and recoil of an artery that occurs with each beat of the left ventricle and creates a pressure wave.
  • PRESSURE POINT- a point where an artery surfaces an area of the body.
resting heart rate
Resting Heart Rate
  • The number of beats per minute
  • Average is 70-80
  • Athletes; 50-60
  • Well trained Athletes 40-50

Why? As you get in better shape, your heart will automatically pump more blood with each beat; and therefore, the rate of contractions (that’s the number of times it beats) will be less when doing the same amount of work. Less heart stress results in more energy saved.

slide39

Cardiac output (CO)

    • Amount of blood pumped by each side of the heart in one minute
    • CO = (heart rate [HR]) x (stroke volume [SV])
  • Stroke volume
    • Volume of blood pumped by each ventricle in one contraction
starling s law
Starling’s Law
  • States that the critical factor controlling stroke volume is how much the cardiac muscle cells are STRETCHED….just before they contract.
  • Factors that stretch the heart:
  • Anything that increases venous return; EXERCISE……INCREASE STROKE VOLUME
  • .
slide41

What would decrease stroke volume?

  • Anything that decreases venous return ( Blood loss
factors affecting blood pressure
Factors Affecting Blood Pressure
  • Neural Factors: The Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Renal Factors
  • Temperature
  • Chemicals (Nicotine, Alcohol, Histamine)
  • Diet (Na+)
120 80 where d ga get these
120/80? Where’d ga get these?
  • Blood Pressure is calculated as Systolic over Diastolic in mmHg

SO we are referring to the

CARDIAC CYCLE

the heart cardiac cycle
The Heart: Cardiac Cycle
  • Cardiac cycle – events of one complete heart beat
    • Mid-to-late diastole – blood flows into ventricles
    • Ventricular systole – blood pressure builds before ventricle contracts, pushing out blood
    • Early diastole – atria finish re-filling, ventricular pressure is low
slide45

SYSTOLE- period when the heart CONTRACTS ( blood pressure is highest when left ventricle is contracting or ejecting into the aorta….120)

  • DIATOLE- when the heart RELAXES
blood pressure
Blood Pressure
  • We speak of arterial blood pressure in terms of two measurements; on and off. In other words when the heart contracts or is in SYSTOLE the arterial pressure is highest or at its peak. When the heart is relaxing or in DIASTOLE it BP is at the lowest .
  • BP is measured in ml. and the Brachial artery of arm is used for this test.
  • Blood Pressure is related to Cardiac Output times Peripheral Resistance ( the amount of friction encounter as blood tries to flow through the vessel)
so how doe it work
So How Doe it Work?

1. Pump cuff until pressure cuts off artery flow.

2. Release cuff SLOWLY so blood will spurt ..this happens only during ventricular contraction ( SYSTOLE) THE FIRST SOUND YOU HEAR

4. Listen until you hear no more clicking. This means blood is flowing continously ..no more spurting…Ventricular relaxation..DIASTOLE

slide49

Age (years)

Systolic pressure (mmHg)

Diastolic pressure (mmHg)

New-born

80

46

10

103

70

20

120

80

40

126

84

60

135

89

Table 1. Some 'average'

blood pressure50
Blood Pressure
  • Measurements by health professionals are made on the pressure in large arteries
    • Systolic – pressure at the peak of ventricular contraction
    • Diastolic – pressure when ventricles relax
  • Pressure in blood vessels decreases as the distance away from the heart increases
peripheral resistance
Peripheral Resistance
  • The amount of friction encountered as blood flows through blood vessel, especially an arteriole. This can be caused by either increase in blood viscosity or the narrowing of the vessel due to different variables ( one being plaque)
  • PR will alter one’s blood pressure. REMEMER: Pressure =Force / Area
factors affecting blood pressure52
Factors Affecting Blood Pressure
  • Neural Factors: The Sympathetic Nervous System
  • Renal Factors
  • Temperature
  • Chemicals (Nicotine, Alcohol, Histamine)
  • Diet (Na+)
slide53
These hormones are produced during times of stress..such as fear or extreme exercise.
  • Epinephrine and Norepinephrine are both produced by the medulla of the adrenal glands.
  • Result: Increase in contraction, heart rate and blood pressure
movement of blood through vessels
Movement of Blood Through Vessels
  • Most arterial blood is pumped by the heart
  • Veins use the milking action of muscles to help move blood

Figure 11.9

capillary beds
Capillary Beds
  • Capillary beds consist of two types of vessels
    • Vascular shunt – directly connects an arteriole to a venule

Figure 11.10

capillary beds59
Capillary Beds
  • True capillaries – exchange vessels
      • Oxygen and nutrients cross to cells
      • Carbon dioxide and metabolic waste products cross into blood

Figure 11.10

lowly bad guys ldls
Lowly, Bad Guys (LDLs)
  • Low Density Lipoproteins (LDLs) Job:To carry cholesterol from the liver to organs tissues that require it. Excess amounts are deposited in the blood vessels where they may be oxidized by free radicals, (charged particles) thereby speeding up inflammation and damage to artery walls and increase the likelihood of blockage.
h is for healthy hdls
H is for Healthy HDLs
  • High Density Lipoproteins (HDLs) can really pack those cholesterol molecules on! They carry unused cholesterol back to the liver for recycling. Removing cholesterol from the blood vessels they protect against artheriolsclerosis and are known as “good”cholesterol.
slide64

How fat and plaque deposits on arteries can lead to arteriosclerosis and Hear Attack

Holisticonline.com Home]

No Obstruction

Partial Obstruction

Cross Section of a healthy artery. The inside of the artery is free and provides unobstructed flow of blood.

Arteries are gradually getting clogged by fatty deposits on the vessel wall. Note that the opening for the flow of blood is now reduced. But there is still space for blood to flow through.

Major Obstruction

Full Obstruction

Advanced hardening of the artery. Fatty deposits now clog most of the artery opening. But small amount of blood (shown in red) still flow through.

Blood clot (shown in blue) now blocks the small opening, cutting off the flow of blood completely. This leads to heart attack.

platelets
Platelets play a role in

Clotting blood and repairing blood vessels.

Platelets
slide66

Risk Factors for CVD Established By American Heart Association

  • 1. Tobacco Use
  • 2. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)
  • 3. Unhealthy Cholesterol Levels
  • 4. Physical Inactivity
  • 5. Obesity
  • 6. Diabetes
rf smoking
RF: SMOKING

Harms the CVS in several ways:

  • Nicotine is a CNS stimulant, thereby increasing blood pressure and heart rate.
  • Carbon monoxide in smoke displaces oxygen in the blood and heart and other parts of body.
  • Smoking damages linings of arteries
  • Contributes to unhealthy blood fat levels by reducing high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) and raising triglycerides and LDLs.
  • Causes platelets to become sticky and cluster, forming Clots.
rf inactivity
RF: INACTIVITY

Exercise: can reverse a sedentarylifestyle; and is known to be “magic bullet” for healthy heart.

Exercise:

Lowers BP, raises HDLs, maintains healthy weight, prevents or helps control diabetes and improves the functioning of endothelial cells that line the coronary arteries.

A minimum of 30 to 60 minutes per day of moderate physical activity is recommended.

Exercise Mechanism: LOWERS VLDLs., raises HDLs (this is one)

rf diabetes
RF: Diabetes
  • Having diabetes doubles the risk for men and triples the risk for women for CVD.
  • Diabetics have higher rates of hypertension, obesity, and unhealthy blood lipid levels.
  • Elevated blood glucose levels that occur in diabetes can damage lining of arteries making them vulnerable to arteriosclerosis.
  • Diabetics often have platelet and blood coagulation abnormalities, setting them at risk for heart attack and stroke.
rf hypertension
RF: HYPERTENSION
  • High Blood Pressure or Hypertension occurs when too much force or pressure is exerted against the walls of the arteries. Too much pressure causes heart to work Over time the heart weakens and enlarges.
  • Increased blood pressure causes arteries to scar and harden; they become less elastic.
  • Eventually ARTERIOSCLEROSIS ensues which can lead to heart attack, stroke . Kidney Failure and damage to every organ in body is also possible due to hypertension.
role of gender in cvd
Role of Gender in CVD
  • Women have produce more ESTROGENs
  • Estrogens protect women from CVD before menopause by lowering LDLs and raising HDLs.
  • Estrogens create the pear-shape in women.
  • Testosterones create the apple-shape in men. Fat is mobilized into blood more easily-bad,
  • Also, in high Testosterone, lowers HDLs. Sorry Guys!
triglycerides
Triglycerides
  • Animal fats are often claimed to be unhealthy owing to their association with high cholesterol levels in the blood. Animal fat contains some cholesterol and saturated fat . Animal fats are often of the saturated.
coronary bypass surgery
The surgery involves sewing a section of vein from the leg or artery from the chest or another part of the body to bypass a part of the diseased coronary artery. This creates a new route for blood to flow, so that the heart muscle will get the oxygen-rich blood it needs to work properly.CORONARY BYPASS SURGERY