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Brief history of wireless communications. DIMETIC PhD course 9 October 2007 (2a) , Maastricht Bent Dalum DRUID/IKE, Dep. of Business Studies, CTIF Aalborg University. The telecom SSI – the major components. Fixed lined (’wired’) telephony equipment Fixed line data transmission equipment

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brief history of wireless communications
Brief history of wireless communications

DIMETIC PhD course

9 October 2007 (2a), Maastricht

Bent Dalum

DRUID/IKE, Dep. of Business Studies, CTIF Aalborg University

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

the telecom ssi the major components
The telecom SSI – the major components
  • Fixed lined (’wired’) telephony equipment
  • Fixed line data transmission equipment
  • Mobile telephony (’wireless’) equipment
  • Satellite communications equipment
  • Telecom operators, incl. satellite based
  • Data transmission through cable TV
  • Internet service providers
  • Etc.

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless technologies and services
Wireless technologies and services
  • Microwaves - Radiocommunications
      • 1) Mobile and cordless communications (equipment for terminals and infrastructure)
        • 2G: GSM, 2+ (GPRS, EDGE)
        • DECT
        • Bluetooth
        • TETRA
        • 3G: UMTS, CDMA2000, TD-SCDMA,

3+ (HSDPA)

        • 4G?
      • 2) Components for mobile terminals
      • 3) Mobile services (operators, content producers, etc.)
      • 4) Maritime communications and navigation
        • communication (VHF, UHF & satellite)
        • navigation (satellite)

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

disruptive technology
Disruptive Technology

S-curves for the established and disruptive technologies

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

technological life cycles
Technological life cycles

The technological life cycles of the mobile communication industry

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history the origins
Wireless history – the origins
  • University research 1860-1890s: Maxwell, Hertz, Branley, Lodge, Popoff..
  • Commercial application: Wireless Telegraph Company founded by Marconi 1897
  • Wireless transmission across the Atlantic 1901 by Marconi
  • One dominant group of customers: the navies

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history public broadcasting
Wireless history – public broadcasting
  • Consumer radio based on radio valves or tubes took off from the early 1920s
  • RCA founded 1919
  • General Electric (Edison) and Westinghouse the major equipment producers
  • Europe: Philips, Telefunken, AEG, Siemens

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history 0g landmobile
Wireless history – 0G (’landmobile’)
  • Major boost during WW2
  • Boost of non-military applications after WW2
  • The commercial fleets: maritime radiocommunications
  • ’Landmobile’: police, firefighters, transport companies (truck fleets, taxis etc.)
  • Major companies in landmobile: General Electric, Motorola (founded in Chicago with the emergence of wireless technologies – the Galvin family)
  • Danish Storno (founded 1947): No. 3 producer of equipment world wide in the 1960/70s.

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history 1g a us invention but
Wireless history – 1G a US invention, but…
  • AT&T introduces first mobile telephony system in 1946 in St. Louis.
  • Bell Labs scientist Ring invents the concept of cellular systems in 1947
  • 1971 AT&T, RCA and Motorola file proposals to use 800 MHz band for cellular systems
  • 1983 FCC grants first commercial cellular licenses
  • 1983 Ameritech launched first commercial cellular system in Chicago.

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history 1g the nordic market became the lead user
Wireless history – 1G the Nordic market became the ’lead user’
  • NMT standardization began in 1970 among the Nordic PTO.
  • NMT 450 MHz implemented in Sweden October 1980 and in Denmark, Finland and Norway in early 1981.
  • However, first implementation actually in Saudi Arabia August 1980.

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history 1g analogue the various standards
Wireless history – 1G (analogue) the various standards
  • NMT 450 and 900 from appr. 1985
  • 1993 NMT introduced in 36 countries
  • AMPS actually introduced in more countries than (e.g Latin America)
  • But the penetration ratios in the Nordic countries significantly larger than anywhere else in the world.
  • TACS in the UK and C-450 in West Germany

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history 2g digital the various standards
Wireless history – 2G (digital) the various standards
  • GSM from 1992: an EU effort. NMT ’copied’ - as an institution - and enlarged to the entire EU. ETSI formed in 1988 (took over from CEPT).
  • GSM: the world winner. Operated in 103 countries in 1996.
  • D-AMPS (Motorola and AT&T) and CDMA (Qualcomm) in the US.
  • PDC in Japan.

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history 2g a family of etsi standards
Wireless history – 2G a ’family’ of ETSI standards
  • GSM 900 and GSM 1800 (called DCS 1800)
  • DECT = cordless phones. Never a breakthrough in integration of GSM and DECT, although this will fulfill evident user needs.
  • TETRA: a ’public, but closed’ system for police, firefighters, ambulances etc.
  • ERMES: paging

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history 2 5g
Wireless history – 2.5G
  • GPRS: always on; makes WAP possible, higher transmission speed
  • EDGE: makes transmission in the 50-100 Kbit within reach
  • GRPS and EDGE are ’extensions’ of the existing GSM networks
  • EDGE is growing fast in the US GSM market

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

wireless history 3g not a world standard
Wireless history – 3G not a world standard
  • IMT2000 a great ITU vision but did not succeed
  • ETSI decision in January 1998 on W-CDMA = UMTS. The 3GPP group.
  • CDMA2000 Qualcomm. 3GPP2.
  • TD-SCDMA China?
  • 3+ HSDPA

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

the telecom ssi the major components16
The telecom SSI – the major components
  • Fixed lined (’wired’) telephony equipment
  • Fixed line data transmission equipment
  • Mobile telephony (’wireless’) equipment
  • Satellite communications equipment
  • Telecom operators, incl. satellite based
  • Data transmission through cable TV
  • Internet service providers
  • Etc.

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

the telecom ssi the major components17
The telecom SSI – the major components
  • Fixed lined (’wired’) telephony equipment
  • Fixed line data transmission equipment
  • Mobile telephony (’wireless’) equipment
  • Satellite communications equipment
  • Telecom operators, incl. satellite based
  • Data transmission through cable TV
  • Internet service providers
  • Etc.

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD

the telecom ssi the major components18
The telecom SSI – the major components
  • Fixed lined (’wired’) telephony equipment
  • Fixed line data transmission equipment
  • Mobile telephony (’wireless’) equipment
  • Satellite communications equipment
  • Telecom operators, incl. satellite based
  • Data transmission through cable TV
  • Internet service providers
  • Etc.

DIMETIC, Maastricht 9/10-07_BD