social psychology n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY PowerPoint Presentation
Download Presentation
SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Loading in 2 Seconds...

play fullscreen
1 / 24

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • 119 Views
  • Uploaded on

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY. Branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others. DEF: the process of forming impressions of others Factors that influence perception: physical appearance, cognitive schemas, stereotypes, and subjectivity.

loader
I am the owner, or an agent authorized to act on behalf of the owner, of the copyrighted work described.
capcha
Download Presentation

PowerPoint Slideshow about 'SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY' - elin


An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation

Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author.While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server.


- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript
social psychology

SOCIAL PSYCHOLOGY

Branch of psychology concerned with the way individuals’ thoughts, feelings, and behaviors are influenced by others

person perception

DEF: the process of forming impressions of others

  • Factors that influence perception: physical appearance, cognitive schemas, stereotypes, and subjectivity
PERSON PERCEPTION
effects of physical appearance

We attach desirable personality characteristics to the good looking

  • We tend to view the attractive as more intelligent
  • Baby-faced people are seen as honest, submissive, and naïve
  • Chameleon effect: tendency to unintentionally mimic other’s movements
EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL APPEARANCE
stereotypes

DEF: widely held beliefs that people have certain characteristics b/c of their membership in a particular group

  • Commonly based on sex, age, ethnic, or occupational group
  • Broad overgeneralizations; inaccurate
STEREOTYPES
subjectivity in person perception

Illusory correlation: when people estimate that they have encountered more confirmations of an association btwn social traits than they have actually seen

  • We recall facts that fit our schemas and stereotypes
SUBJECTIVITY IN PERSON PERCEPTION
evolutionary perspective on bias

Helps to separate friend from foe

  • Ingroup: a group that one belongs to and identifies with
  • Outgroup: group that on does not belong to or identify with
EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE ON BIAS
attribution processes

ATTRIBUTION PROCESSES

Attributions are inferences that people draw about the causes of events, others’ behavior, and their own behavior

internal vs external

Internal attributions: ascribe the causes of behavior to personal dispositions, traits, abilities, and feelings

  • External attributions: ascribe the causes of behavior to situational demands and environmental constraints
INTERNAL VS. EXTERNAL
kelley s covariation model

Harold H. Kelley

  • Assumes that people attribute behavior to factors that are present when the behavior takes place and absent when it does not
  • Consider 3 types of info:
  • 1) Consistency
  • 2) Distinctiveness
  • 3) Consensus
KELLEY’S COVARIATION MODEL
attributions for failure and success

Bernard Weiner

  • Believes people often focus on the stability of the causes underlying behavior
  • Stable-unstable dimension to attribution
ATTRIBUTIONS FOR FAILURE AND SUCCESS
actor observer bias

Fundamental attribution error: observers’ bias in favor of internal attributions in explaining others’ behavior

  • Observers may not know history of actor to make correct judgment about the behavior being seen
ACTOR-OBSERVER BIAS
defensive attribution

DEF: tendency to blame victims for their misfortune, so that one feels less likely to be victimized in a similar way

  • Attributes negative traits on the victim
DEFENSIVE ATTRIBUTION
self serving bias

DEF: tendency to attribute one’s success to personal factors and one’s failures to situational factors

  • Observers attribute your failures to your internal factors; actor will blame external factors
SELF-SERVING BIAS
culture attribution

Cultural differences in individualism and collectivism

  • Individualism: putting personal goals ahead of group goals and defining one’s identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group membership
  • Collectivism: putting group goals ahead of personal goals and defining one’s identity in terms of the groups one belongs to
CULTURE & ATTRIBUTION
close relationships liking and love

CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS: LIKING AND LOVE

Interpersonal attraction refers to positive feelings toward another

physical attractiveness

Physical attractiveness influences course of commitment

  • Matching hypothesis: proposes that males and females of approximately equal physical attractiveness are likely to select each other as partners
PHYSICAL ATTRACTIVENESS
similarity effects

Do “opposites attract”?

  • NO
  • Couples tend to be similar in almost every aspect
SIMILARITY EFFECTS
reciprocity effects

Reciprocity: liking those who show that they like you

  • Flattery will get you somewhere
  • Couples will tend to “idealize” their partner
RECIPROCITY EFFECTS
passionate love

DEF: a complete absorption in another that includes tender sexual feelings and the agony and ecstasy of intense emotion

PASSIONATE LOVE
companionate love

DEF: warm, trusting, tolerant affection for another whose life is deeply intertwined with one’s own

  • Divided into:
  • Intimacy: warmth, closeness, and sharing in a relationship
  • Commitment: intent to maintain a relationship in spite of the difficulties and costs that may arise
COMPANIONATE LOVE
love as attachment

Cindy Hazan and Phillip Shaver

  • Attachment to caregiver as an infant translates to romantic relationships in adulthood
  • Secure-attachment leads to secure relationships
  • Anxious-ambivalent = intensely emotional relationships
  • Avoidant = casual sex
LOVE AS ATTACHMENT
culture and close relationships

Passionate love in a romantic relationship is not a pan-cultural emphasis

  • Arranged marriages still exist today
CULTURE AND CLOSE RELATIONSHIPS