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Using Technology to Enhance Literacy of ELL ’ s. Clara Norales ED 7202T Dr. Sharon A. O ’ Connor- Petruso Fall 2012. Table of Contents. Introduction Statement of the Problem Review of Related Literature Statement of the Hypothesis Methods Participants Instruments Experimental Design

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Using technology to enhance literacy of ell s

Using Technology to Enhance Literacy of ELL’s

Clara NoralesED 7202TDr. Sharon A. O’Connor-PetrusoFall 2012

Table of contents

Table of Contents


Statement of the Problem

Review of Related Literature

Statement of the Hypothesis




Experimental Design





Statement of the problem
Statement of the Problem

* ELL’s are having a hard time when it comes to learning the English language.

* The computer is an excellent resource for giving students the chance to practice English skills without worrying about the response of other classmates or even the teacher. (Dukes, 2005).

* Technology can also improve students’ motivation to learn (Butler-Pascoe,1997).

Review of related literature
Review of Related Literature

Supporting Theorist:

*The World Wide Web has great potential for providing ELL’s the visual and aural stimulation to render new concepts more comprehensible (Cummings, 2009).

*According to Vygotsky’s (1978) sociocultural theory, learning is facilitated through interaction with the social environment (interpersonal learning) rather than intrapersonal learning.

Review of related literature1
Review of Related Literature

  • Pros:

    *Using technology with English Language Learners (ELL) enables students to construct meaning in a digital environment (Healey & Klinghammer, 2002).

    *Computers can also aide in vocabulary development as well as verbal language development (Green, 2005).

Review of related literature2
Review of Related Literature

  • Cons:

  • Technical Difficulties: Technology doesn’t always work. Computers crash, hardware fails, bulbs burn out…all when you least expect it. (Kuroneco, 2008)

  • In schools with access to technology, the computers most frequently remained underused or figuratively in the closet (Ware, 2008).

  • Teachers and pupils needs training in order to use the technology to its full potential (Higgins, Smith, Wall, & Miller, 2005).

Statement of the hypothesis
Statement of the Hypothesis

  • HR1: To integrate technology based instruction activities to fifteen sixth grade students, for 45 minutes per day over a four week period. This will increase student’s literacy levels as measured by test scores in the English Language Arts test.


  • 15 Sixth-Grade students attending P.S. X

    in Brooklyn, N.Y.

  • 9 males

  • 6 females

  • 11 - 12 year olds

  • Bilingual Self Contained

  • 12 below reading level readers

  • 3 on reading level


  • Consent forms: Principal, Teacher, Parent/Guardian

  • Surveys: Students’ Demographics, Technology

  • Tests: ELA Reading (multiple choice), Listening, Writing.

  • Technology

    • Laptops with internet connection

    • Electronic Storybooks -

    • Educational Website – Achieve 3000

Experimental design
Experimental Design

  • Pre-experimental design

    • One-Group Pretest-Posttest Design

      • Single group is pretested by reading a traditional printed text

      • Exposed to the treatment

        • Reading electronic storybooks through the internet on classroom laptops

        • Reading Comprehension through the internet

      • Post-tested after exposure to the treatment

    • Symbolic Design

      • OXO


  • 2/20/12: Participants completed Student Surveys 1 and 2

  • 2/27/12-/29/12: Pretest administered

  • 2/27/12: Participants introduced to electronic storybooks

  • 3/26/12 - 3/28/12: Posttest administered


  • The result of this study did not support the original hypothesis which stated that the use of technology was going to help students increase their literacy levels as measured by test scores in the English Language Arts test.


  • Conduct with same sample over a longer time period.

  • Posttest (multiple choice questions) may have been too difficult.

  • Conduct during test preparation sessions.

Using technology to enhance literacy of ell s


  • Ardeshiri, M., Cohen, Sarah & Cummins, J. (2008). Computer-Supported Scaffolding of Literacy Development. Pedagogies: An International Journal. 4, 4-21.

  • Arslan, R.S., Sahin-Kizil, A. (2010). How can the use of blog software facilitates the writing process of English Language Learners? Computer Assisted Language Learning. Volume 23 (3), 183-197.

  • Baturay, M., Daloglu, A., &Yildirim, S. (2009). Effects of Web-based Spaced Repetition on Vocabulary Retention of Foreign Language Learners. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 34, 17-36.

  • Black, R.W. (2009). English Language Learners, Fan Communities, and 21st Century Skills. Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy. Volume 52 (8), 688-697.

  • Cagiltay, K., Saran, M., & Seferoglu, G. (2009). Mobile Assisted Language Learning: English Pronunciation at Learners’ Fingertips. Eurasian Journal of Educational Research. 34,97-114.

  • Cummins, J. (2009). Transformative Multiliteracies Pedagogy: School-base Strategies for Closing the Achievement Gap. Multiple Voices foe Ethnically Diverse Exceptional Learners. Volume 11(2), 38-56.

  • Cummins, J. (2011). Literacy Engagement – Fueling Academic Growth for English Learners. The Reading Teacher. Volume 65 (2), 142-146.

  • Daud, N. M. & Husin, Z. (2004). Developing critical thinking skills in computer-aided extended reading classes. British Journal of Educational Technology. Volume35 (4), 477-48.

  • Dukes, C. (2005). Best Practices for Integrating Technology Into English Language Instruction. Seir-Tec News Wire. Volume 7 (6), 3-6.

  • Fitzgerald, G., Kelly, P, M.K., & Zha, S. (2006). An Investigation of Communicative Competence of ESL Students Using Electronic Disscussion Boards. Journal of Research on Technology in Education. Volume 38 (3), 349-367.

  • Foulger, T. S. & Jimenez-Silva, M. (2009). Enhancing the Writing Development of English Language Learners: Teaching Perceptions of Common Technology in Project-Based Learning. Journal of Research in Childhood Education. Volume 22 (2), 109-124.

  • Granoff, S. & Whiting, J. (2010) The Effects of Multimedia Input on Comprehension of a Short Story. TESL-EJ: Teaching English as a Second Language or Foreign Language. Volume 14 (2), 1-10.

  • Green, Timothy. (2005) Using Technology to Help English Language Students Develop Language Skills: A Home and School Connection. Multicultural Education. Winter 2005, 56-59.

  • Higgins, S., Smith, H.J., Wall, K. & Miller, J. (2005). Interactive White Boards: boon or bandwagon? A critical review of the literature. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning. Volume 21, 91-101.

  • Kuroneko, (2008). The Basics: Chalkboards, Flipcharts, Whiteboards, and Overhead Projectors.

  • Lacina, J. (2004/2005). Promoting Language Acquisitions: Technology and English Language Learners. Childhood Education. Volume 81 (2), 113-115.

Using technology to enhance literacy of ell s

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