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  1. Life Cycle Assesement (MIPS) Ireneusz Zbicinski, Krzysztof Ciesielski Lodz, Technical University, Poland April, 2012, Rogow



  4. Diamond ring 540000x10-2 +5260000x0.2x10-3= =6452 kg/t

  5. A Comparative LCAAnalysis of a Passenger Car and a Municipal Bus

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  7. 10 years 12 years 130,000 km during life time (13,000 km/year) 960,000 km during life time (80,000 km/year) 4 persons 0.052x106 passenger kilometres/year 100 persons 8x106 passenger kilometres/year life span mileage passengers

  8. 8 x 106/(0.052 x 106) = 154 cars 1 bus

  9. 9.3x Lacking exact data concerning the bus, the amount of materials used in the production of a municipal bus was estimated by comparison with the car. The material use in the production of the bus was assumed to be proportional to the use in the car. As the weight of the car was 1,071 kg, and that of the bus, i.e. 10,000 kg; the proportion is 10,000/1,071= 9.3.

  10. 8x The amountof electric energy use in the production was estimated to be 8times higher for the bus as compared to the car

  11. Material intensity during production

  12. Material intensity during production

  13. Material intensity for use The analysis of material intensity of the use phase of the vehicles themselves requires information on: • Fuel consumption • Tires used • Materials for maintenance (repair and service) • Water for washing The analysis of material intensity of the transport infrastructure requires information on: • Materials for building and maintaining the roads • Materials for peripheral infrastructure (street lights and parking lots)

  14. In the case of Lodz municipal buses: Material intensity for use fuel consumption is 34.3 l per 100 km; at a density of 0.830 kg/l we obtain the value of 28.5 kg fuel used per 100 km. A bus drives 80,000 km per year, using 22,775 kg fuel annually; in a 12-year life cycle this value reaches 273,302 kg. Oil consumption constitutes 1% in relation to the fuel consumption, hence per 100 km it is 0.343 l (oil density = 0.900 kg/l) and 0.309 kg, respectively. The annual oil consumption is 246.4 kg per 80,000 km, and in the whole life cycle it is 2,957 kg.

  15. Material intensity for use In Poland, municipal buses are washed every day, exceptin winter, when the ambient temperature is below -3°C. Thenthey are washed every third day. This adds up to a total of 280days a year on average. During 12 years the bus is thereforewashed 3360 times.

  16. Material intensity for use As for the energy used for vehicle heating, the bus was heated for 198 hours (50 h in November, 77 h in December, 22 h in January and 49 h in February (data for the year 1998/99). The fuel consumption standard for heating is 3.5 l/h. The total amount of fuel used for heating is thus 693 l or 575 kg. For the whole life cycle this amounts to 6,902 kg.

  17. Material intensity for use The amount of spare parts used during a major repair ofthe bus is 1,603 kg. Such a repair is made four times a year, soannually this makes 6,415 kg, and during the whole life cycle76,979 kg. Tires in a bus are changed every third year (6 tires, eachweighing 58 kg). During the whole life cycle it makes1,392 kg.

  18. Material intensity for use

  19. Waste ManagementDuring the Use Phase The transport intensity of the waste produced during the use of the car or bus, the unit tkm, defined as t tons transported kmkilometres is used

  20. Waste ManagementDuring the Use Phase Copper, brass, aluminium, lead and steel scrap coming from repairs and disassembly of road devices and equipment as well as the bus amounts to 1,328 kg. The material is sold to companies located at a distance of 30 km. The transport of scrap metal this distance thus adds up to 39.8 tkm annually; 478 tkm during the whole life cycle of the bus.

  21. Waste ManagementDuring the Use Phase The 60 kg car batteries of the bus are changed every 3 years. The batteries are then disposed of at the Mining and Steel Works “Orzel Bialy” in Bytom at a distance of about 190 km. Since 4 sets of batteries are used during the life cycle of the bus this adds up to annually 60x190/4=2.9 tkm, and for the whole life cycle34.8 tkm.

  22. Waste ManagementDuring the Use Phase On the whole, every year waste is transported at a distance of 422 km, so it is easy to calculate the quantity of fuel used in the entire life cycle as 1443 kg.

  23. Waste ManagementDuring the Use Phase