What is Culture? • A people’s way of life • It includes: • Language • Literature • Music • Art • Beliefs and Religion • Technology • Institutions • Customs • Roles
Customs • How people dress • Traditional foods • Holidays • How they celebrate major turning points: • Birthdays, coming-of-age, marriage, parenthood, death
Roles • Based on rules for the proper behavior of individuals in particular positions and situations • Gender roles – specifically assigned to men and women
Homogeneous vs. Multicultural • Homogeneous Society: almost everyone belongs to the same ethnic group and shares the same language and traditions • Examples: Saudi Arabia, Japan • Multicultural: contains a mix of peoples and cultures; ethnic groups are often mixed throughout the country • Examples: United States, Brazil
Cultural Diffusion • Dispersion of ideas, practices, technologies, language and other cultural aspects • This is how culture evolves and adapts • Examples: • Spread of languages and religion • Jazz in the United States • Columbian Exchange
Cultural Diffusion • Spread of American Popular Culture • American movies, “pop” music, TV programs, “fast food,” have all spread around the world McDonald’s Tokyo, Japan McDonald’s Jerusalem
Folk Culture • Folk culture refers to a culture traditionally practiced by a small, homogeneous, rural group living in relative isolation from other groups.
Cultural Diffusion • Cultural Convergence – occurs when different cultures exchange ideas and become more similar; led to globalization • Example: Democracy, spread of English • Cultural Divergence – occurs when different cultural influences cause an area to divide into separate parts • Example: India – was once unified by a common Hindu culture; arrival of Islam led it to be divided into Hindu and Muslim areas
In your notes… • Write about how the Winter and Summer Olympics are an example of cultural convergence/globalization. • How has technology contributed to cultural convergence and globalization?
Major Religions • Christianity – 2.2 billion • Islam 1.5 billion • Hinduism 1 billion • Buddhism 400 million • Animism 232 million • Judaism 17 million • Sikhism 16 million
Christianity • Holy Book: Bible • History: Began 2,000 years ago • Geographic Origin-Developed in Judea (now Israel), located in the Middle East bordering the Mediterranean Sea sometime around the year 30 CE.Currently Practiced-Christianity is the dominant religion in North America, South America, Europe, and Russia. • Beliefs • Based on teachings of Jesus • Divided into Orthodox Christians, Catholics and Protestants • Monotheistic
Islam • Founded by Mohammed around 600 AD • Holy Book: Qu’ran • Geographic Origin-Developed on the Arabian Peninsula in the year 622 CE, and quickly spread to other regions.Currently Practiced- Islam is most dominant throughout the Middle East, including Southwest Asia and North Africa • Place of Worship: Mosque • Beliefs • Five Pillars of Faith • There is not other God but Allah • Pray five times a day facing Mecca • Must give money to the poor • Fast during the holy month of Ramadan • Must make a pilgrimage (trip) to Mecca (Hajj)
Islamic Symbol – Star and Crescent Allah in Arabic
Hinduism • Most popular religion in modern India • Holy Texts: BhagavadGita, Upanishads • Believe in many gods, each of which is a form of one Supreme Being • Geographic Origin-Developed on the Indian subcontinent. • Currently Practiced-Most common in India. • Beliefs • Reincarnation: a person’s soul is reborn as another living thing • Karma: People who lead a good life will be reborn into a higher caste, while those who do not are reborn into a lower caste • Sacred Objects: believe the cow is sacred; Hindus will not eat beef; Ganges River
Buddhism • A leading religion in Tibet, Japan, Thailand, and China • Follow the teachings of Buddha, who taught that selfish desires were the sources of all human suffering • Geographic Origin-Developed in India. • Currently Practiced-Most common in Southeast Asia and Japan.. • Beliefs • Do not believe in a Supreme Being; do not have a primary holy book, but basic beliefs are found in the Sutras • Eightfold Path: Tells Buddhists to give up wealth, act worthily, live righteously, and respect all living things
Animism Animism is the oldest known type of belief system in the world. It is still practiced in a variety of forms in many traditional societies. Geographic Origin-Developed simultaneously in different parts of the world. Currently Practiced-World-wide, but most common in areas of Africa and the Americas. Significant Writings-Most traditional cultures that practice Animism also have an oral tradition of story-telling, rather than a developed writing system.
Judaism • Holy Books:Torah and Talmud • Judaism is the oldest known monotheistic religion still practiced in the world today. Its fundamental teachings have been influential and are the basis for more recently developed religions such as Christianity and Islam. • Geographic Origin-Developed in the Middle East in and around the area that is currently Israel. • Currently Practiced-Worldwide, but the greatest majority of Jews reside in Israel, the United States, and the former Soviet Union. • Places of worship: synagogue
Sikhism • Combines both Hindu and Muslim beliefs • Geographic Origin: India • Currently Practiced: Mainly Northern India • Beliefs • Like Hindus, belief in reincarnation, but do not have castes • Like Islam, believe in one God • Equality between men and women
World Religion Map • World Religion Origins Map
Video – Sketches of the World • In search of light – watch United Streaming video