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Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment. NEW AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste?. I. Excretion. A. removal of metabolic waste. i. Carbon dioxide. ii. Nitrogenous waste. a. produced from breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids.

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Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment


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    1. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment NEW AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? I. Excretion A. removal of metabolic waste i. Carbon dioxide ii. Nitrogenous waste a. produced from breakdown of proteins and nucleic acids

    2. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment NEW AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? b. Forms of nitrogenous waste 1. Ammonia (NH3) - highly toxic - highly water soluble Fig. 25.8 - formed by deamination of AAs - secreted by most aquatic animals

    3. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment NEW AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? b. Forms of nitrogenous waste 2. Urea - 100,000X less toxic than NH3 - Highly water soluble Fig. 25.8 - mammals, adult amphibians, sharks, some fish - convert NH3 to urea (liver) - urea travels in blood and is removed by kidneys - why don’t all organisms just make urea?? - certain toads switch back and forth Compare hypothetical storage of NH3 to storing urea in bladder.

    4. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment NEW AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? b. Forms of nitrogenous waste 3. Uric acid - relatively non-toxic - Largely INSOLUBLE in water Fig. 25.8 - birds, insects, many reptiles, land snails, amphibians in deserts - secreted as a paste or dry powder - costs a lot to make - savings is in water - great for external development (egg) Birds don’t urinate!

    5. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment NEW AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? b. Forms of nitrogenous waste Summary Fig. 25.8

    6. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? II. Excretion in other organisms A. Protists - diffusion through membrane - ammonia and CO2 - use contractile vacuoles

    7. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? II. Excretion in other organisms B. Cnidaria (hydra) - entire body in contact with water - diffusion of ammonia and CO2

    8. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? II. Excretion in other organisms C. Annelida (Earthworm) - Nephridia = excretory organs of Earthworm - one pair in each segment - excrete urine (urea and ammonia) out the nephriopores - CO2 excreted through skin (skin-breathers)

    9. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? II. Excretion in other organisms F. Arthropod (Grasshopper) - CO2 diffuses into tracheal tubes and expelled through spiracles - Malpighian tubules = excretory organs - expels URIC ACID with fecal matter

    10. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? II. Excretion in other organisms Summary

    11. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment NEW AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System Fig. 25.9 *LIVER - makes urea from ammonia (site of deamination) - flow chart from duodenum to ammonia **Skin and lungs also involved in excretion

    12. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment NEW AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System A. Kidneys i. Site of urine formation ii. maintains the homeostatic balance of blood Fig. 25.9 1. Regulates metabolic waste • filters out metabolites (urea) 2. Regulates osmolarity - filters out minerals/water 3. Regulates blood pressure 4. Regulates pH iii. 1100-2000L of blood filtered per day

    13. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment NEW AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System B. Flow of the excretory system i. Blood enter via renal artery ii. Urea, water and salts extracted by nephrons of kidneys (filtrate) iii. Blood leaves via renal vein iv. Filtrate drains into renal pelvis (urine now) -> ureter -> bladder -> urethra -> toilet

    14. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System C. How does the kidney extract filtrate? 1. The Nephron i. Functional unit of the kidney Fig. 25.9 ii. ~1,000,000 per kidney

    15. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System C. How does the kidney extract filtrate? 1. The Nephron Fig. 25.9 i. Functional unit of the kidney ii. ~1,000,000 per kidney iii. Each extracts tiny amount of filtrate

    16. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System C. How does the kidney extract filtrate? 1. The Nephron ** Fig. 25.9 http://www.sickkids.ca/childphysiology/cpwp/urinary/kidney.swf

    17. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System C. How does the kidney extract filtrate? 1. The Nephron - Flow chart through nephron Fig. 25.9 http://www.sickkids.ca/childphysiology/cpwp/urinary/kidney.swf

    18. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System C. nephron Practice Labeling http://www.sickkids.ca/childphysiology/cpwp/urinary/kidney.swf Fig. 25.9

    19. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System C. nephron Urine is produced in 4 major processes Fig. 25.10

    20. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System A closer look at urine formation C. nephron Fig. 25.11

    21. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? ADH = antidiuretic hormone = vasopressin III. Human Excretory System D. Regulating the nephron (water reabsorption) i. Under hormonal control ii. Regulate osmolarity (solute concentrations) - Solute sensors in brain (ex. too little solute = too much water) iii. Regulates blood pressure also - low blood volume = low BP = reabsorb more water = secrete ADH

    22. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System D. Regulating the nephron (water reabsorption) i. Under hormonal control ii. Solute sensors in brain (too little solute = too much water) iii. Regulates blood pressure High [water] = high BP Negative feedback Alcohol inhibits release of ADH ADH = vasopressin

    23. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System D. Regulating the nephron (water reabsorption) Q. What type of feedback? Quick Fact: Alcohol inhibits release of ADH Q. Predict what would happen to a person drinking a lot of alcohol. Caffeine also inhibits ADH release…

    24. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System D. dialysis i. Kidneys are damaged a. toxic waste builds up, unregulated BP, unregulated pH, unregulated salt/water concentration b. causes - hypertension and diabetes (60%) -prolonged use of pain relievers, alcohol, other drugs and medicines ii. Artificial kidney a. Dialysis = separation b. 3 times a week, 4 to 6 hours a session

    25. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System D. dialysis

    26. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System E. gout i. Hyperuricemia - elevated levels or uric acid in blood - causes 1. Accelerated generation of uric acid 2. Impaired excretion in kidney 3. Consumption of purine-rich diet - crystals of uric acid form in joints (pain)

    27. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System E. gout

    28. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? III. Human Excretory System F. Kidney Stones (for Joel) i. AKA renal calculi ii. Form inside kidneys or bladder iii. Most made of Calcium oxalate crystals

    29. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? IV. The liver A. More functions than any other organ i. Bile production ii. Deamination and synthesis of urea from ammonia iii. Detox of alcohol and other drugs iv. Synthesize blood clotting factors v. Involved in blood glucose regulation (stores glucose as glycogen) vi. Forms lipoproteins - transport fat and cholesterol to body tissues

    30. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? IV. The liver A. More functions than any other organ i. Bile production ii. synthesis of urea from ammonia iii. Detox of alcohol and other drugs iv. Synthesize blood clotting factors lipoprotein vi. Forms lipoproteins

    31. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? IV. The liver A. More functions than any other organ i. Bile production ii. Deamination and synthesis of urea from ammonia iii. Detox of alcohol and other drugs iv. Synthesize blood clotting factors v. Involved in blood glucose regulation (stores glucose as glycogen) vi. Forms lipoproteins - transport fat and cholesterol to body tissues So where do you think your blood goes straight after absorbing molecules at the small intestines?

    32. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? IV. The liver A. More functions than any other organ First “stop”…the liver. The hepatic portal express - nutrients and harmful chemicals go straight to liver from duodenum - detox before entering body, and modify nutrients (deamination, lipoprotein synthesis, etc…) Fig. 25.13

    33. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? IV. The Skin (not in book) Fig. 25.13

    34. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? IV. The Skin a. epidermis i. Top layer of skin ii. Protects body, keeps in moisture iii. Couple layers of living cells topped with many layers of dead cells iv. Holds skin pigment

    35. Chapter 25: Control of the Internal Environment AIM: How do organisms deal with metabolic waste? IV. The Skin b. dermis i. Layer underneath epidermis ii. Connective tissue iii. Nerve endings for heat/pressure/pain iv. Glands (pores) - sebaceous (oil) gland - associated with hair - eccrine (sweat) gland -sweat = 99% water, bit of NaCl, waste products (urea) - thermoregulation, excretion, protection v. Blood vessels