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Chapter 2: Ancient River Valley Civilizations. 4 Regions!. City-States in Mesopotamia Egypt & Nile River Indus Valley China. Common Characteristics ??. Water!! Deserts of river cultures short on resources River Valley Civilizations Opportunity to adapt environment

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4 regions
4 Regions!
  • City-States in Mesopotamia
  • Egypt & Nile River
  • Indus Valley
  • China
common characteristics
Common Characteristics ??
  • Water!!
    • Deserts of river cultures short on resources
    • River Valley Civilizations
  • Opportunity to adapt environment
  • Suitable for domesticated plants/animals
  • Relatively stable (a bit hot) climate
slide6
Mesopotamia

The Fertile Crescent

mesopotamia fertile crescent
Mesopotamia – Fertile Crescent
  • Sumer – The Earliest of the River Valley Civilizations
  • Sumerian Civilization grew up along the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers in what is now Kuwait.
sumerians city states
Sumerians: City-States
  • City-State: a city and it’s surrounding land becomes an independent political unit
  • Priests were rulers, then came WAR
  • Cultural diffusion: spreading of a new idea or product from one culture to another
sumerian culture
Sumerian Culture
  • Polytheism: belief in many gods
  • Class structures
  • INVENTIONS!
sumerians invented
Sumerians invented:
  • Wheel, sail, plow
  • Bronze!
  • Brick technology
  • Arches, ramps and pyramids (ziggurat)
  • First writing system, called….
ziggurat holy mountain
Ziggurat – Holy Mountain

Click on the pictures for more information on ziggurats.

babylon
Babylon
  • Empire: a political unit where peoples or countries are controlled by a single ruler
  • Babylon – 2000BCE
  • First know written law code
    • “Rule of Law”
  • Hammurabi’s Code - 1792 BCE
code of hammurabi
Code of Hammurabi

#175: If a man has struck the cheek of a man who is superior to him, he shall be beaten 60 times with an oxtail whip in the assembly.

#205: If a man has struck the cheek of a member of the aristocracy, they shall cut off his ear.

slide14
Early River Valley Civilizations

Environment

  • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable
  • No natural barriers
  • Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings

Mesopotamia

Egypt

Indus River Valley

China

egypt the gift of the nile
EGYPT“The Gift of the Nile”

Hieroglyphics

Pyramids

Geometry

Advances in medicine and surgery

Nile River

Sahara Desert

favorable geography
Favorable Geography
  • Benefits of Nile
    • Rich soil
    • Water
    • Transportation
  • Natural Boundaries
egyptian history
Egyptian History
  • Early gov’ts to control Nile
  • Eventually combined:
    • Lower Egypt (north)
    • Upper Egypt (south)
  • Old Kingdom
    • 3,100-2,200 BC
    • Pyramids built as tombs
egyptian history1
Egyptian History
  • New Kingdom
    • 1,570-1100 BC
    • The Empire
    • Ramses II
    • Tutankhamen
egyptian life culture
Egyptian Life & Culture
  • Pharaoh: god-kings, rulers of the Old Kingdom
  • Privileged aristocracy
    • Pharaoh & his family
    • Nobles
    • Priests
  • Unprivileged masses
    • Peasants
    • Slaves
    • FLEXIBLE CLASS STRUCTURE!
egyptian life
Egyptian Life
  • Economic activities
    • Depended chiefly on agriculture
    • Glassblowing
    • Imported timber and copper
  • Religious beliefs
    • Polytheistic
    • Mummification
egyptian contributions
Egyptian Contributions
  • Math
    • Surveyed land
  • Art
    • Huge stone statues
    • Carved/painted various scenes
  • Architecture & engineering
    • Pyramids and temples
    • Dams and irrigation canals
egyptian contributions1
Egyptian Contributions
  • Hieroglyphs on papyrus
    • “sacred writing” or pictures to

Represent ideas and sounds

  • Science
    • Solar-year calendar (365 days)
    • Prepared mummies
    • Recognized/Treated diseases
slide25
Early River Valley Civilizations

Environment

  • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable
  • No natural barriers
  • Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings

Mesopotamia

  • Flooding of the Nile predictable
  • Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages
  • Deserts were natural barriers

Egypt

Indus River Valley

China

geography of south asia
Geography of South Asia
  • Indus & Ganges Rivers
  • Monsoons: seasonal winds
  • Wet & dry seasons
indus river valley 2500 bc 1500 bc
Indus River Valley2500 BC – 1500 BC
  • Harappan culture
  • Trade
  • Well planned cities
    • Grid pattern
    • Modern plumbing
    • Built on mud brick platforms
      • Protected against seasonal floods
    • Larger cities
      • Houses built of baked brick
    • Smaller towns
      • Houses built of sun-dried mud brick
what we don t know
What we DON’T know:
  • Language?? Huh?
  • Religion??
  • Where did they go?
slide31
Early River Valley Civilizations

Environment

  • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable
  • No natural barriers
  • Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings

Mesopotamia

  • Flooding of the Nile predictable
  • Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages
  • Deserts were natural barriers

Egypt

  • Indus flooding unpredictable
  • Monsoon winds
  • Mountains, deserts were natural barriers

Indus River Valley

China

geography of china
Geography of China
  • Isolation
  • 2 major river systems
  • Loess: yellowish silt deposited by Huang He River
  • 1887 CE flood killed approx 1 million people
shang china 1600 bce 1027 bce
Shang China1600 BCE – 1027 BCE

Written records

Palaces with protection!

Class structures!

origins of chinese culture
Origins of Chinese Culture

Written language vs. Spoken language

FAMILY

Family & Ancestors

Class Structure

zhou china 1122 bc 256 bc
Zhou China1122 BC – 256 BC
  • Bronze, jade, silver, gold
  • Mandate of Heaven
  • Power to rule came from heaven
    • Power could be lost and passed on to
    • Another family
    • Dynastic Cycle
feudalism in china
Feudalism in China

Coined money leads to:

  • Roads
  • Canals
  • TRADE

Now they have IRON!

  • Weapons
  • Farm tools
feudalism in china1
Feudalism in China

Feudalism: nobles are granted use of lands that legally belong to the king

King owes the nobles protection

FIGHTING!

slide39
Early River Valley Civilizations

Environment

  • Flooding of Tigris and Euphrates unpredictable
  • No natural barriers
  • Limited natural resources for making tools or buildings

Mesopotamia

  • Flooding of the Nile predictable
  • Nile an easy transportation link between Egypt’s villages
  • Deserts were natural barriers

Egypt

Indus River Valley

  • Indus flooding unpredictable
  • Monsoon winds
  • Mountains, deserts were natural barriers
  • Huang He flooding unpredictable
  • Mountains, deserts natural barriers
  • Geographically isolated from other ancient civilizations

China

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