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Indus River Valley Civilizations

Indus River Valley Civilizations

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Indus River Valley Civilizations

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  1. Indus River Valley Civilizations

  2. Located in India

  3. Physical features of India • 1) Himalayas • 2) Deccan Plateau • 3) Desert • 4) Ganges River

  4. Characteristics of Civilization • Written Language: similar to hieroglyphics and cuneiformSanskrit • Role of Religion: Theocracy Early signs of Hinduism • Connection with other cultures: • - Trade through seas or rivers • - Trade mostly west

  5. Monsoons • Monsoons: Seasonal Winds • 1) Half of the year is dry • 2) Half of the year is wet

  6. Orographic Lifting India Tibet/Central Asia

  7. The Wet Monsoon Arrives * May to October *Blows over the Indian Ocean *Picks up mois- ture and brings rain to the Indian subcontinent

  8. SUMMARY

  9. BANGLADESH IS A DELTA: one third of it goes underwater during the wet season

  10. Problems faced: • 1) Flooding during Summer Monsoons • 2) Crop failure due to flooding • 3) Flooding could make rivers change course • 4) Unpredictable monsoons

  11. How do we fix these problems? • 1) Create walls to prevent access water from entering village • a. Made out of mud bricks • 2) Planned Cities URBAN PLANNING • a. Sort of like block system in NYC grid system • i.Good straight road paths from place to place in city • 3) Plumbing and sewage systems • a. Why is this important? • i. Water and sewage will not roam into streets and out of cities keeping them clean and spread of disease down

  12. Indus River Valley Cities: • 1) Kalibangan • 2) Mohenjo- Daro • 3) Harappa

  13. What is the Caste System?

  14. Indian Empires • 1) Maurya • 2) Gupta • 3) Mughal

  15. Chandragupta Maurya – 321 BC • Battled with local leaders to unite all of northern India through war • Large army –waged war to spread empire • oWell organized bureaucracy • Roads, taxes, postal system, courts

  16. Asoka – 274 BC • o    Grandson of Chandragupta • War at first then.. • ·    Converted to Buddhism spread of Buddhism • oSpread through empire as well as throughout Asia • oPeace and prosperity • Hospitals, houses, laws in local languages • Empire declines in 232 BC • Became disunited

  17. Gupta Empire “Golden Age” • o310 AD • What is a golden age? • united by Chandragupta I • Creates a patriarchal society

  18. Accomplishments • oArts • §Poetry • §Paintings • §Write down Sanskrit • ·      Spread language • oScience • §mathematics, Pi, decimals • ·      Algebra, Concept of 0  proved earth is round • ·      Universe– lunar cycles • 7 day week, sun cycles. Medicine surgeries, medical plants • ·      Operations 1st Plastic surgeries • Medical instruments

  19. Over time the Gupta Empire will fall to the Mughal Empire (Muslims)

  20. Famous King Akbar Allowed religious tolerance between Muslims and Hindus Married a Hindu Wife

  21. The rulers that followed Akbar were not as tolerant as he was and Muslims and Hindus became intolerant of one another future problems

  22. During Mughal Empire is when the Taj Mahal was built. Combines both Muslim and Hindu architecture and design

  23. Soon bad rulers and the division between Muslims and Hindus would lead to rebellion and fall of Mughals