SOC/110: Work Shop 1: Conflict Management Tools Teamwork, Collaboration, and Conflict Resolution Joseph Lewis Aguirre
WS1: Team Fundamentals EXPERT ADVICE Identify characteristics, types and designs of teams. Recognize the relevance of teams and their advanatges and disadvantages Differentiate between team structure, processes and strategies Defferetiate between tasks and maintenance beheaviors and effective teams Understand the five stages of team building
Teams • Teams attributes • Types of teams • Cost/B\benefit • Group Vs individual • Team Parameters: Structure, Processes, strategies • Individual Behavior: Task/Maintenace • TDLC
Teams- Definition 1) Collection of individuals 2) Shared commitments and goals 3) Interdependent relationships
Teams- Groups 1) Teams possess mutual accountability; groups may not 2) Higher level of commitment in teams 3) Group members contribute individually, team members create synergy. 4) Teams are clearly identifiable, stable, and share a team culture.
Teams- Types 1) Levels of autonomy: a) Manager led: manager has all control over team goals, processes, and functions b) Self-managed: manager provides goals, team determines processes and functions to achieve goals c) Self-directed: team determines goals, processes, and functions
Teams- Types 2) Spheres of Influence a) Work team: Members perform work-related tasks together daily. b) Task team: Members are assembled to work on a specific issue or problem. c) Governing team: Members serve a governing or management function.
Teams- Cost/Benefit a. Advantages: 1) Multiple viewpoints 2) Healthy conflict yields higher quality results 3) Group synergy 4) Higher commitment during implementation
Teams- Cost/Benefit Disadvantages: 1) Reach decisions more slowly 2) Higher risk of unhealthy conflict 3) May not have sufficient authority c. Relevance in today's society: 1) Recognition of interdependence 2) Recognition of diversity 3) Team members as representatives of larger group (economies of scale
Teams- Parameters Structure - Agreements about team logistics 1) Who - who belongs and why? 2) What - is our purpose? What are our deliverables? 3) Where - do we interact (physical or virtual) 4) When - do we interact?
Teams- Parameters Processes - Norms for group interactions and activities 1) How - how will we communicate? 2) What - what form of leadership will we use? 3) How - how will we make decisions? 4) How - how will we handle conflict?
Teams- Parameters Strategies - Plans for reaching team goals 1) How - how will we divide the work? 2) What - what timeline will we use to assure we are on track? 3) How - how will we measure our successes? 4) What - what tools or methods will we use? 5) What - what resources do we need?
Teams- Individual Behavior Task behaviors: Help the group achieve its goal(s) or produce its deliverables 1) Contributing information 2) Providing resources 3) Evaluating feasibility 4) Establish deadlines 5) Delegating responsibilities 6) Identifying logistical problems 7) Keeping focus on goals
Teams- Individual Behavior Maintenance behaviors: Keep the group functioning in a healthy manner 1) Asking for Clarification 2) Providing Summarization 3) Identifying common ground and areas of conflict 4) Encouraging participation 5) Addressing conflict 6) Reducing tension 7) Seeking consensus
Teams- Development Cycle- Tuckman Forming - members try to "figure out" group norms and how they fit in 1) Characteristics a) low risk-taking b) stereotyping others c) low participation/high observation d) socially-approved behaviors 2) Transition a) ice-breakers and teambuilding activities b) creating a charter c) memorandums of understanding (MOU's)
Teams- Development Cycle- Tuckman Storming - members begin asserting their own ideas and opinions about the task and process of the team 1) Characteristics a) ego-based conflict b) polarization c) complaining d) territoriality 2) Transition a) discussion of group roles b) identifying and understanding diverse perspectives c) practicing effective feedback d) revisiting/modifying charter
Teams- Development Cycle- Tuckman Norming - members realize they must work together to achieve their goal(s) 1) Characteristics a) "go along to get along" b) careful listening c) increased tolerance for diverse viewpoints d) groupthink e) beginning of collaboration f) pressure to conform 2) Transition a) group evaluation b) refocus on task c) practicing effective feedback
Teams- Development Cycle- Tuckman Performing - members balance task and process as they work productively toward their goal(s) 1) Characteristics a) productive conflict b) effectively using individual strengths and weaknesses c) synergy d) anticipating diverse perspectives 2) Transition a) (optional) structured closing b) recycling Adjourning - optional 5th stage
WS2: Teambuilding Processes and Strategies EXPERT ADVICE • Identify individual strengths and weaknesses as they relate to teams and team roles. • Examine the impact of leadership roles on team processes. • Examine behaviors, including trust building, conducive to effective teams. • Identify relevant team objectives and goals as they relate to team productivity. • Develop effective team agreements.
WS3: Collaboration in the Team Environment EXPERT ADVICE • Describe the elements of a collaborative team meeting. • Create an agenda appropriate to the meeting purpose. • Facilitate effective communication in different team environments. • Identify techniques of effective decision making.
WS4: Conflict in Teams EXPERT ADVICE • Identify sources of conflict. • Differentiate between healthy and unhealthy conflict in teams. • Understand the five conflict management styles. • Examine individual preferences for managing conflict
WS5: Conflict Management Tools EXPERT ADVICE • Compare and contrast different methods of conflict resolution. • Apply appropriate principles of conflict resolution to diverse conflict scenarios.
Decision Styles Task Oriented Analyzer Ruler Entertainer Relater People Oriented Passive Aggressive Decision Styles Intent Need Category Get it done right Control Ruler Get it done right Accuracy Analyzer Get Along Approval Relater Get Appreciated Attention Entertainer
CERTAINTY AMBIGUITY RISK UNCERTAINTY LOW Probability of Failure HIGH Decision Making Types
DECIDE FACILITATE DELEGATE CONSULT CONSULT GROUP Participative Decision Making INFLUENCE OF LEADER FREEDOM OF GROUP Factors: Need for commitment, Leader’s expertise. Likelihood of commitment, group support for organizational goals, group expertise, team competence
Learning Styles Style C:sensitivity to moods, atmospheres, and attitudes; an awareness of things as a process Style D: originality, ambiguity, & surprise; well in chaos Order/Chaos Style A: logical approach to problem solving; reducing complex issues into simple decisions. Theories Style B: reliance on procedure, order, and stability; and an affinity for turning answers into actions More Order Intuition Logical
Individual Vs Collective Intelligence No one in this world, so far as I know, has ever lost money by underestimating the intelligence of the great masses of the plain people -H. L. Mencken Large groups of people are smarter than an elite few, no matter how brilliant—better at solving problems, fostering innovation, coming to wise decisions, even predicting the future. -James Surowiecki
Values Ecology Cutting Edge Image Fun Growth Family Capital Quality Social Capital Location Hedonism Risk Collaboration Centralization Creativity Other Honesty Customers Employees Safety Competitors Revenue Profits Alliances New Products New Markets
Organizational Effectiveness ENVIRONMENT CLIMATE Other Teams Marketplace Enthusiasm STRUCTURE Competition Accountability Reward System GOALS Reporting Relationships Values Clarity Commitment Collaboration Mission Philosophy Stress Feedback System Decision Making Behavior Norm Flexibility Trust Competition Culture Involvement Pressures
Decision Strategies Optimization Satisficing Elimination by aspects – eliminate all alternatives that fail with respect to a particular aspect
Decision Strategies Instrumentalism – muddling through – compare alternative courses of action to the current one Mixed scanning – search for, collection, processing, evaluating and weighing of information. The importance of the decision determines the degree of scanning Analytical Hierarchical Process
Decision Making Framework Information Characteristics Decision Structure Pre specified Scheduled Detailed Frequent Historical Internal Narrow Focus Business Professionals Operational Management Efficient, do thing right Structured Tactical Management Business Unit Managers -Effective, right thing Ad Hoc Unscheduled Summarized Infrequent Forward looking External Wide Scope Semi Structured Strategic Management Executives, Directors -Transformation Un Structured RELATIVE TIME SPAN
Problem Solving Intelligence Problem Space Problem Space Design Choice
Decision Making Process Intelligent Phase Objectives Problem statement Data Collection Design Phase Modeling Criteria Alternatives Choice Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation Implementation
Problem Identification • Clearly defined • Ill Defined • Problems Vs Opportunities • Group Vs Individual
Problem Identification • Raw Information • Sorting, Filtering • Meaning • Problem Statement • Select • Organize • Interpret
Decision Making - Experts EXPERT ADVICE • "I think there is a world market for maybe five computers" - Thomas Watson, IBM president, 1943. • "Television won't last because people will soon get tired of staring at a plywood box every night" - producer Darryl Zanuck, Twentieth-Century Fox, 1946.
Decision Making - Experts EXPERT ADVICE • "There is no need for any individual to have a computer in their home" - Ken Olson, president of Digital Equipment Corp., 1977. • "640k ought to be enough for anybody" - Microsoft founder Bill Gates, 1981
Different Perspectives Conventional view: Violence is a result of environment Neuroscience report: Violence is a function of abnormal brain activity caused by brain damage. Christian view: Violence is a result of (original) sin in people.
Forces of Influence • Broad • Physiology, psychology, sociology • Narrow • Gender, age, birth, order, culture, education, economic status, religion, etc.
Forces of Influence • We distort the way we perceive the world • We differ in our views of reality • We can make hurdles instead of walls
Intelligent Phase Objectives Problem statement Data Collection Design Phase Modeling Criteria Alternatives Choice Solutions to the Model Sensitivity Analysis Plan for implementation Implementation Problem Solving Making the decision 4.Identify causes 5.Alternatives 6.Impact of alternatives 7. Make decision Evaluation 8. Measure impact 9. Implementation Framing the Problem 1.Identify the problem 2.Define criteria, goals 3.Evaluate effect of the problem
Cost Factors #1: Wasted time #2: Opportunity cost of wasted time #3: Lowered job motivation and productivity #4: Lost performance due to conflict-related absenteeism #5: Loss of investment in skilled employees #6: Conflict-incited theft, sabotage, vandalism, and damage #7: Restructuring around the problem #8: Health costs #9: Degraded decision quality
Window on World of DP Intent Need Category Get it done right Control Ruler Get it done right Accuracy Analyzer Get Along Approval Relater Get Appreciated Attention Entertainer Task Oriented Analyzer Ruler Entertainer Relater People Oriented Passive Aggressive
Window Into Conflict Resolution Non-adversarial attitude toward other Adversarial attitude toward other A number value for your organization A number value for your organization Detachment Collaboration Evasion Coercion Engagement with other Disengagement from other
30% of a managers time is spent dealing with conflict Fortune 500 company executives are involved in litigation related activity 20% of their time. Conflict Resolution Strategy Step 1: SWOT Step 2: Train - Establish the core competencies Step 3: Coach ~ Support the learning Step 4: Enable - Remove the obstacles – culture driven Step 5: Institutionalize ~ Train in-house experts Establish a panel of skilled mediators to resolve disputes that are not successfully resolved by the core competencies gained by Training (Step 2) and supported by Coaching (Step 3). Step 6: Feedback - Compare to benchmarks
Forming, storming, norming, and performing Barriers to the group process Groupthink Constructive versus destructive conflict Conflict resolution Task and interpersonal roles The various roles people play (mediator, leader, etc.) Team Forming